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Apprenez à jardiner dans le respect de votre environnement, un site de la SNHF

Création de Jacques Castagné (D.Ronflard)

Jardine avec Bottine et ses amis. de 3 à 11 ans

L’ornementation florale dans les jardins

Villandry (C.Secq)Vedette de nombreuses créations contemporaines, la fleur est presque devenue incontournable dans l'art paysager. Difficile, semble-t-il, d'imaginer un jardin sans elle. Si elle sait se faire discrète dans certaines réalisations publiques, elle s'invite en force chez beaucoup de particuliers qui en viennent parfois même à confondre composition végétale et débauche florale. Un engouement récent qui remonte à deux siècles à peine.

Verts ou fleuris ?
Les jardins varient au gré des modes. Très appréciée au Moyen Âge, vouée à l'ornementation des parterres à la Renaissance et au Grand Siècle, la fleur se retrouve presque bannie des parcs pittoresques. Pleinement réhabilitée au XIXe siècle, elle joue alors les stars, affichant formes et coloris sophistiqués dans des compositions qui ne le sont pas moins. Revenue, depuis lors, à plus de naturel, elle conserve une place de choix dans de nombreux jardins, surtout privés.

Depuis longtemps, des fleursVillandry (C.Secq)
Très prisées dans l'Antiquité, les fleurs ornementales, notamment les roses, s'invitent volontiers dans les jardins de cette époque, ceux des Romains par exemple. Un intérêt qui se retrouve chez les premiers Mérovingiens comme l'atteste Fortunat, évêque de Poitiers, en décrivant le jardin de Childebert 1er et de sa femme Ultrogothe, « le gazon vert, les roses du paradis » puis « l'enclos émaillé de mille fleurs diverses ». Avant tout utilitaires, destinés à nourrir, vêtir ou soigner, les jardins du Moyen Âge - du moins ceux des monastères ou des paysans et artisans - font la part belle aux plantes médicinales, aromatiques, potagères ou textiles ainsi qu'aux arbres fruitiers. Cela n'empêche pas la rose, le lis, l'iris ou encore la modeste violette d'y trouver leur place. Dans les jardins princiers, le "préau", prairie fleurie de multiples corolles prélevées dans la campagne environnante, constitue un élément incontournable. Campanules, pensées, primevères, ancolies, muguets ou scabieuses s'y mêlent avec bonheur inspirant, plus tard, les tapisseries "mille fleurs".

À partir du XIIIe siècle, le "verger" (jardin d'agrément) s'enrichit de nouvelles venues en provenance d'Orient ou d'Espagne et le modeste préau à la robe champêtre cède la place à des "carreaux" de plantations plus raffinés. Ainsi en estil dans les jardins du bon roi René qui s'émaillent à profusion d'oeillets, roses de Provins ou violettes d'Arménie. La littérature et les arts se font l'écho de cet engouement : tandis qu'un "verger" fleuri "l'hiver comme l'été" sert de cadre au Roman de la rose, les livres d'heures se parent de marges florales somptueuses et les sculpteurs rivalisent d'adresse pour sublimer dans les rosaces des cathédrales la "reine des fleurs". Reléguées à un rôle secondaire dans les réalisations de la Renaissance, qui accordent la priorité aux éléments architecturaux et aux végétaux persistants, les plantes à fleurs n'en sont toutefois pas absentes.

Jardin botanique de Nantes (C.Secq)À la différence des parquets (parsitions terres) plutôt verts de l'Italie, ceux de l'Europe du Nord privilégient les jeux de couleurs et témoignent de l'intérêt des Anglais, Hollandais ou Allemands pour ces plantes. En France, thym, lavande, hysope, romarin ou sauge, utilisés pour leur feuillage, côtoient marguerites et pensées. À Chenonceau par exemple, dans le jardin créé pour Diane de Poitiers, puissante maîtresse d'Henri II, des milliers de violettes sont transplantées des bois avoisinants pour égayer les parterres. De même, Claude Mollet, en évoquant le château d'Anet où, cinquante ans auparavant, son père Jacques était maître jardinier, parle de "grande quantité de fleurs de toutes sortes". Au Grand Siècle, la gamme végétale se diversifie. Si l'usage se poursuit d'utiliser divers matériaux pour créer des effets de coloris (sables de différentes teintes, brique pilée, mâchefer, charbon battu...), tulipes, fritillaires, jacinthes et renoncules investissent certains parterres ou cernent ceux-ci d'une bordure attrayante. Dans La Théorie et la pratique du jardinage, parue en 1708, Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d'Argenville consacre d'ailleurs plusieurs chapitres aux fleurs, à la "manière de les cultiver" et à "la place convenable" qu'elles doivent occuper dans les jardins.

Louis XIV, quant à lui, en est grand amateur. Tandis qu'à Versailles, seul le parterre du Nord est fleuri, les jardins du Grand Trianon associent par milliers tubéreuses, giroflées, lis, narcisses, oeillets... pour la plupart plantés en pot ce qui permet des "changements à vue" de composition. Une véritable débauche de couleurs, mais aussi d'odeurs, presque excessive si l'on en croit Madame de Maintenon constatant que « les tubéreuses [...] font abandonner Trianon tous les soirs » car « des hommes et des femmes se trouvent mal de l'excès de parfum » !


Odile Lacaille d'Esse
Article paru dans Jardins de France
Octobre 2008


acheter les actes du colloque Quand les plantes se parlent