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Apprenez à jardiner dans le respect de votre environnement, un site de la SNHF

Création de Jacques Castagné (D.Ronflard)

Jardine avec Bottine et ses amis. de 3 à 11 ans

L'exposition universelle de 1855

En 1855, la SNHF - qui s'appelait encore alors Société impériale et centrale d'horticulture - participe à l'Exposition Universelle qui se tient à Paris. En tant que société ressortissant du ministère de l'agriculture, elle obtient une allocation de 4 000 francs, à titre exceptionnel, pour préparer cet événement (Journal de la SNHF, 1855, p. 61). Cette Exposition Universelle attirera 24 000 exposants et plus de 5 millions de visiteurs. Elle se distinguait des précédentes éditions par le souhait de Napoléon III d'y réserver une part importante à l'art, comme en témoigne d'ailleurs son intitulé complet : "Exposition Universelle des produits de l'agriculture, de l'industrie et des beaux-arts". La SNHF y connut un véritable triomphe. Elle disposait de tous les atouts pour briller lors de cet événement : son président était alors le duc de Morny, demi-frère de Napoléon III. Morny, féru d'horticulture, avait apporté un soutien illimité aux préparatifs.

Le domaine d'activité de la Société et la présence d'une section spécialisée en art : tout concourrait à son succès. L'inauguration eut lieu le 3 mai 1855 en présence de l'empereur et de l'impératrice. En phase avec son époque, attirée par l'exotisme, la Société avait eu la bonne idée d'élever un pavillon chinois ainsi qu'un pavillon indien (Journal, 1855, p. 203) : un public ébloui y admirait oiseaux et plantes exotiques. Des serres étaient également présentées au public. Ce type de construction traduisait bien le modernisme de la SNHF. En effet, au milieu du XIXe siècle, les serres se développent sous l'impulsion des progrès techniques concernant les matériaux qui les composent, comme le verre et l'acier. Il est possible de se rendre compte des merveilles de l'exposition en lisant les omptesrendus publiés dans le journal de la Société tout au long de cette année 1855. Parmi les plantes exposées à l'ouverture de l'événement, des plantes de serres chaudes comme les orchidées - une curiosité pour l'époque - des pivoines, des plantes aquatiques, des arbres et arbustes d'orangerie, des arbres fruitiers... Mais également des fruits dont le mode de conservation est inédit comme ces "fruits forcés" : les ananas de Monsieur Soucieux, jardinier de Mme la Baronne Seillière, dame patronnesse de la SNHF ; des légumes de "luxe" pour l'époque (asperges, melons et fèves) ; des plantes potagères peu connues parmi lesquelles carottes blanches et jaunes, sorgho...

Dans la tente réservée aux objets relatifs à l'horticulture, le public pouvait découvrir des appareils hydrauliques perfectionnés. Le rédacteur du compte-rendu de mai 1855, M. Rousselon, remarque particulièrement "une usine fonctionnant sous l'eau au moyen d'un courant d'air" (Journal, 1855, p. 207). Des appareils de chauffage sont également exposés, ainsi que de la poterie de luxe et des ouvrages traitant d'agriculture et d'horticulture. Tout ceci démontre que la Société était alors fort informée et sensible aux innovations de son époque et qu'elle cherchait à en faire la promotion.

Parmi les oeuvres d'art exposées par la SNHF, la verrerie horticole et les objets recouverts de glu marine attirent l'attention. La tente chinoise servit de lieu d'exposition pour les artistes de la Société et recelait des curiosités. Le visiteur pouvait y contempler des fleurs naturelles conservées et encadrées, des fruits artificiels (dits "fruits imités") par MM. Montels, Janin et Durand, des dessins horticoles. Mais la tente présentait également des objets à la pointe de la modernité pour l'époque comme des fruits et légumes en plastique, réalisés par MM. Lédion et Buchetet (auteurs également des fruits moulés de la collection SNHF, cf. notre rubrique de mai 2005) (Journal, 1855, p. 208).

Entre autres curiosités, le public découvrit des plantes textiles, obtenues par MM. Louvié et Yelli, qui pouvaient servir à la fabrication de papiers et cartons. Les gourmands n'étaient pas oubliés puisqu'à la présentation d'un cacaotier était associée une dégustation de chocolat, confiserie onéreuse à l'époque. M. Rousselon, rédacteur du document qui nous restitue les merveilles exposées par la SNHF, avoue qu'il s'agit d'un compte-rendu sommaire ! (Journal, 1855, p. 208).

A nous de rêver aux merveilles exposées. Bien sûr, l'Exposition eut un coût financier, qui fut évalué après coup. En effet, la SNHF versa aux 555 concurrents exposants une somme totale de 18 000 francs (Journal, 1886, p. 5). Cet investissement fut compensé par les 250 000 entrées payantes qu'elle enregistra et par une hausse de sa notoriété. Enfin, c'est cette année-là que la SNHF devint association reconnue d'utilité publique.

En illustration : Plan du Jardin dessiné et exécuté pour la Société impériale et centrale d'horticulture par P. Loyre pour l'Exposition Universelle et Permanente de 1855.

Article paru dans Jardins de France. Octobre 2008

acheter les actes du colloque Quand les plantes se parlent