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Définition du mot jardin au fil du temps

Jardin fermé de Blaircastle Ecosse (C.Secq)Apparu au Moyen Âge, le terme « jardin » ne semble pas présenter de difficulté sémantique particulière. Défini par l'Académie française comme « un lieu découvert, ordinairement clos, le plus souvent attenant à une habitation, dans lequel on cultive des légumes, on plante des fleurs, des arbres, etc. », il est doté d'une signification analogue dans la plupart des dictionnaires et encyclopédies. Et pourtant : la réalité paraît beaucoup plus complexe et, de ce fait, bien difficile à cerner en quelques mots.

Caractérisés par leur clôture, leur fonction - utilitaire ou d'agrément -, la place importante occupée par le végétal ou encore le rôle de l'homme, qui y « cultive » et « plante », les jardins présentent en fait une diversité de visages qui s'accommode mal d'une rapide description. Incomplètes ou contestables selon les périodes et les lieux, les définitions se trouvent même parfois invalidées par certaines créations... pourtant qualifiées de « jardins » !

Un lieu ordinairement clos
"Espace clos", "terrain généralement clos", "lieu [...] ordinairement fermé", "pièce de terre [...] renfermée de murailles", les dictionnaires paraissent unanimes sur un point particulier : le jardin est clos. Rien d'étonnant d'ailleurs puisque la clôture permet de différencier ce dernier du simple champ cultivable et d'en faire un espace à part dans la nature, qu'elle soit sauvage ou cultivée. Cette caractéristique trouve sa source dans l'étymologie même du terme. Adopté en France au XIIe siècle, le mot « jardin » dérive, en effet, du francique gart ou gardo signifiant "ceinture" ou "clôture" ; utilisé en gallo-romain comme épithète d'hortus (hortus gardinus), il devient en ancien français jard puis jardin. Imaginaire ou réel, le jardin conserve longtemps la particularité d'être un espace fermé. Dans la Bible, celui du Cantique des cantiques ne reçoit qu'un seul qualificatif : il est clos. L'Eden, quant à lui, se trouve protégé, après la Chute, par un ange au glaive flamboyant qui en interdit l'entrée : il l'est donc également. Même constat dans la réalité, en particulier au Moyen Âge où la clôture a tout simplement une fonction pratique, servant à protéger les plantations des bêtes errantes et des maraudeurs. Branches entrelacées (plessis), haies, pieux taillés en pointe ou simples palissades, treillis, barrières et même murs de pierres ou de briques permettent d'isoler un espace établi à la mesure de l'homme et installé à l'abri d'une nature longtemps considérée comme hostile. Profanes ou religieuses, la littérature et l'iconographie de l'époque font aussi la part belle à la clôture, dotée de significations diverses dans le registre de la symbolique.

Dès la fin du Moyen Âge pourtant, le jardin s'ouvre sur le monde extérieur. À la Renaissance, si le giardino segreto, entièrement ceint de murs et installé à l'écart de la composition principale, se présente comme le prolongement de l'enclos médiéval, l'aménagement de vues et percées sur le paysage permet d'instaurer un dialogue entre création humaine et nature. Quelques décennies plus tard, la perspective longue et le point de fuite à l'infini unissent plus étroitement encore environnement et jardin dans les somptueuses réalisations de Le Nôtre. C'est d'ailleurs à cette époque qu'apparaît le haha que généralisent, au siècle suivant, les Britanniques dans le but d'effacer visuellement les limites de leurs parcs pittoresques. Installé autour de la propriété, ce fossé sec, court, profond et souvent maçonné, empêche veaux, génisses et autre bétail d'investir les lieux tout en laissant totalement ouverte la vue sur les prés et champs environnants. En prenant la nature pour modèle, le paysagiste William Kent choisit d'ailleurs d'abolir toute frontière : "Il franchit la clôture et vit que toute la nature est un jardin" (Horace Walpole). Plus besoin dès lors d'enclore les lieux, du moins de manière ostensible. Et pourtant ! Sur ce point comme ailleurs, l'éclectisme se manifeste dans les jardins contemporains. Rien de commun, en effet, entre les propriétés totalement ouvertes de nombreuses banlieues nord-américaines et les haies de thuyas impénétrables, véritable "béton vert", longtemps chères aux habitants de l'Hexagone. Une question de tempérament et de sensibilité sans doute.


Odile Lacaille d'Esse
Article paru dans Jardins de France
Mars 2009


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