vytorin side effects long term use aspirin 100 mg levitra plus legal in england voveran prescription coupon what is the generic form of flonase cialis super active sale 100mg overnight depakote canada overnight delivery tamsulosin online proventil hfa dosage isotretinoin side effects statistics safe buy motrin online what is the difference between cialis 36 hour and daily glucotrol xl online overnight shipping kamagra.com where to buy pet medication online levlen buy canada lexapro 20 mg tablet phone in order for cialis jelly liposafe mg order tesco pharmacy opening times blackpool yagara by mail order non generic order aceon online canadian where to buy flagyl online mexico etodolac cheap order evista online where acai berry from shuddha guggulu pills purchase meclizine 25 mg online long time side effects emsam where can youtube buy valtrex over the counter exelon how to buy very cheap brand levitra viagra sublingual no rx where to get tadalis sx atacand refill pack splitting 100mg viagra zofran 4 mg film tablet generic bupron sr usa pharmacy is zithromax sold over the counter topamax pill shop discount code zyprexa 10 mg side effects low dose naltrexone uk buy pamelor side effects migraines purchase generic rumalaya gel cost of ciprofloxacin without insurance minocin without prescription cheapest rosuvastatin to buy cheapest neurontin paypal how to buy zyloprim in canada doxazosin in usa buy vpxl canada how to take prednisolone 25mg what is prometrium for lanoxin generic abilify tablets for purchase cozaar without rx is albendazole an over the counter drug order allopurinol cheapest buy actos from canada website pill identifier price lopid is unisom available over the counter bactroban usa cvs prices eli lilly cialis wiki phenamax drug class sildenafil citrate 50mg india medrol drug classification is cytoxan a prescription drug over counter substitute synthroid online pharmacies european alli cecchini florida volleyball cardizem online bestellen zyloprim cost in canada cong dung thuoc atorlip 10 ditropan canadian online proscar online shipping ordering low dose moduretic viagra plus nitrates quanto costa il cialis in farmacia italiana Purchase aciclovir 3 200mg online pharmacy uk retin-a 0,05 pill rx health order tetracycline products generic elavil cost instant male erection pills what is the shelf life of cialis buy canada online generic effexor balika vadhu desi tashan 20 feb 2013 order pravachol online indian minocycline anxiety pills effects malegra dxt shortage nitrofur generic macrobid how long do herpes outbreaks last with valtrex nolvadex shortage does cvs sell over the counter inhalers buy zithromax pills in the us lov cost cialis super active comprar tretinoin 0,025 original en madrid brahmi tablets how to use furosemide buy femara singapore what is antivert drugs warfarin foods to avoid nhs differin gel online pharmacy doxycycline antibiotic for sale can you buy adalat pills isoptin direct pharmacy cheap advair diskus online buy discount roxithromycin canada valacyclovir drug insert cymbalta dosage amounts diovan for sale uk how to take promethazine with codeine getting albendazole in australia zenegra sale lithium weight gain percentage where to buy elocon cream metformin over the counter india online meds review purchase lamisil on line in mexico purchase generic biaxin what is alliances in ww1 what is the difference between proair and proventil how to get cialis sublingual on line is paxil a prescription drug baclofen 20 mg price how to get mobic on line buy altace mg online brafix refills discount code for motilium cialis tadalafil 5 mg best prices for aricept cost of bupropion hcl xl 300 mg lamictal generic cost propecia women does work pics of arimidex pills rogaine 5 discount voucher cost of actos with insurance purchase paroxetine on line in australia alli diet reviews torsemide order online what are the long term side effects of imuran rimadyl or metacam for dogs best cefadroxil prices most reliable place to buy caverta online amitriptyline 10mg motilium dosage for adults clorfenamina compuesta para que sirve ventolin prescription reglan medicine side effects how to use haridra pharmacies in canada online cephalexin delivery overdose of elavil side effects cheap pet meds from canada chloroquine malaria xanax bars for sale online to buy brafix buy etodolac online at canada pharmacy ordering kamagra on line terramycin trusted online drug stores in canada promethazine prices at costco betapace birth control online us order amantadine online canada buy over the counter brand cialis online purchase augmentin cheap amoxicillin generic femara visa estrogen blockers for sale yasmin pill side effects weight gain bactrim mail order can order beconase aq online buy reglan new zealand online buy orlistat online with mastercard fluconazole tablets prescribing information viagra professional delivery parlodel side effects women paroxetine cost comparison drugs paxil effexor xr paypal how to take diclofenac gel mg clozaril india no prescription lowest priced lipitor voveran without a script buy plavix tablets uk could you order diflucan online mode of action of chloroquine against malaria can i make kamagra oral jelly clomid canada no prescription aricept patent in canada order lady era medication by mail accutane makes acne worse purchasing kamagra online uk bactroban nasal what is it used for what is zaditor eye drops used for spironolactone differin gel acne can you buy proventil drugs albuterol buy uk amitriptyline online liv standard form contract of sale can you take silagra daily nitroglycerin explosive formula order abilify 10 canadian pharmacy cialis vs levitra forum can propranolol make you gain weight buying hydrochlorothiazide using paypal what is the generic for alphagan malegra fxt in the uk now discount canadian pharmacy liv 52 purchase liv 52 pills best online pharmacy generic bystolic healthy meat manicotti recipe zoloft drug store online disfuncion erectil sintomas is viagra sold over the counter in the us indian medication order medrol serevent prix en pharmacie en france feldene with american express bactrim dose for cellulitis comprar anafranil 25mg research grade mentax betapace no prescription protonix pills online in the india online cealis that accepts paypal fucidin ointment uses research grade propranolol wholesale altace online cheap advantages and disadvantages of content validity lopressor prices buy terramycin boots pharmacy is aricept available over the counter what is promethazine vc codeine syrup used for generic arjuna cost over counter tretinoin 0,05 brafix legal in england american calan gates generic from capoten amoxil tablets for dogs where to buy clonidine ointment cheap heartworm pills no prescription prozac vs zoloft vs celexa where is zyrtec on sale order generic isoptin fast minocin deleviery generic pilex us evista medication for osteoporosis pastillas alli precio en mexico can you buy amitriptyline online benicar where can i buy it buy motrin mexican pharmacies can you order alavert mg medication how to get off of clonidine buy carafate paypal accepted where to buy metoclopramide online canada buspar and alcohol cravings hoodia gordonii 1000 mg buy brand vermox canadian pharmacy technician jobs viagraa virosta ilman reseptia" ramipril dosage 20mg where to order alligator meat delivered aldara imiquimod generic prometrium 100 mg progesterone terramycin ophthalmic ointment what is it for propecia equivalente what is minipress used for cialis tadalafil wirkung is brand viagra legal in uk naproxen over the counter uk cheap kamagra next day delivery betoptic coupon code buy proscar quick fast viagra plus deleviery generic levaquin prices lamictal max dose pcos pregnancy success stories clomid fast alphagan delivery genuine ranitidine 100mg suhagra price india nike wmns air max 1 black leopard animal womens health canada arjuna famvir famciclovir 250 mg methotrexate drugstore.com is there a drug comparative to tadacip female cialis without insurance purchase depakote in canada prednisona 20 mg posologia buy requip in usa what is renagel 800 mg diovan with american express where can i get yasmin birth control best place to buy periactin in mexico buy nizoral 5 calan 100 can i get elocon what is olanzapine primarily used for sertralina emagrece 50 mg shatavari online order atorvastatin 40 mg order antibiotics from canada pharmacy how to order robaxin online pharmacy what is colospa for order casodex overnight cardizem without a script how to get capoten on line florida alligator park orlando buy acticin effects price generic enalapril tablets 5mg buy diflucan without a script where can i buy clomid benicar 5 mg tablets order bactrim lowest price generic differin gel kamagra oral jelly side effects effexor xr canadian online purchase nolvadex lowest price zolpidem dosage overdose buy abilify online india naprosyn dose range viagra sublingual for sale australia fast motilium deleviery generic name for voltaren voltaren retard 75 mg side effects buspar generic for iscrizione newsletter viagra most reliable place to buy finast online buy lasix canada how do i buy propecia pills buy colospa patch costco pharmacy cardizem price levitra no prescription uk approved pharmacy what is better than protonix order indocin cheap colchicine buy online uk amitriptyline complaints buy minoxidil 10 percent levitra 20 mg 4 tablet fiyat? spironolactone side effects weight gain cheap brand amoxil free delivery order alli on line india cialis en ligne port gratuit hydrochlorothiazide no rx code red pill 7 seconds buy grifulvin v astrailia zyvox dosage info generic hindi movie adalat watch online purchase generic cialis super active no prescription ink order isoniazid where can i get atacand pills generic topamax overnite shipping when will there be a generic for avalide provera tablets for sale how to order paxil online to buy minomycin aldactone where can i buy it when can you drink alcohol after taking a zpack ciplox overnight shipping cheap cost of januvia best site get pulmicort cheap suprax buy azithromycin online cheap topamax weight loss drug bon jovi is like viagra for women online generic cialis sublingual amaryl lowest price acquisto lopid sicuro online is estrace available over the counter propecia uniteded uk propeci cheap can you abuse zanaflex alli australia is it safe to order ethionamide what does prednisone do for asthma overseas pharmacy no prescription epivir-hbv cheap prograf uk what is promethazine w codeine used for zithromax buy online uk suprax generic suspension order celebrex online canada tadacip low cost buy epivir-hbv new zealand online no ovulation on clomid 150mg sinemet shelf life prophylactic azithromycin bronchiectasis meloxicam inactive ingredients can you buy advair diskus online fluticasone levitra plus medicine alcohol mg actos without a transcript contains aspirin mask youtube allegra forum generic cialis online pharmacy keflex drug oversea what is the unsafest canadian online pharmacy healthcare alliance rxrelief content insurance amitriptyline alcohol blackout is generic mevacor effective what does phenergan brand names how long does it take for olanzapine to start working cheapest place to buy lady era estrace cream price discount pharmaceuticals prescription drugs alfumet fluconazol generic buy differin gel 0.3 very cheap lisinopril suhagra online with out prescription indocin spain over counter buy pet meds without prescriptions my viramune coupons indocin lowest price sending lithium batteries overseas harga salep zovirax legal to buy crestor instant chlamydia test buy viagra in saudi arabia imuran dose myasthenia gravis cheap diamox pills aldactone prescription high blood pressure is ashwagandha legal in uk atorvastatin dose vs simvastatin buy generic requip with bonus american levitra plus rayh health care cialis buy zyban mg which uk site to buy hyzaar best price erexor yasmin saleh boston can you buy grifulvin v doctor diet fluoxetine medication alcohol what is nizagara drugs aspirin medicine children generic bentyl overnite shipping femara prices canada viagra comparison to cialis and levitra trandate online pay paypal side effects of the drug actonel can you buy cialis professional in ireland tadalafil 20mg levothroid for men in usa what does inr mean for coumadin pharmacies in canada viagra gyne-lotrimin buy online ireland costco pharmacy eldepryl price retin a cream 0.025 uk probalan coupon code bystolic side effects long term use best site get mobic sumycin without a prescription oxytrol over counter mail order furosemide cialis sale online australia buy avapro in ireland aldactone online meds fluoxetine 60 mg tablet ditropan medication interactions nexium from canada prices com forzest in canada cheap generic claritin d brand cozaar for sale buy naprosyn tablets online mentat price india taking prednisone drinking alcohol institute of nuclear medicine and allied sciences buy viagra vancouver what does ranitidine how to import lexapro 4 types of blood pressure medication premarin horses legal to buy triamterene buy medication no prescription where is itv drama broadchurch filmed names of aspirin medication how to get alli pills american tinidazole cheap us buy calander losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets usp buy generic levothroid online matrix red pill blue pill quote buy robaxin usa best female cialis prices pfizer ireland pharmaceuticals little island diltiazem hydrochloride cream hemorrhoids nolvadex and clomid side effects buy tretinoin 0 05 discount can you buy phenergan in the uk como comprar o alli get methotrexate toronto get cleocin las vegas comprar metformina sin receta yasmin birth control price in canada order doxycycline monohydrate online canadian pharmacy alli weight loss cheap bupropion xl cost walmart aslene orlistat when will xenical be back in stock mirapex price comparisons purchase dostinex online no prescription order coreg 120 mg costco opening times reading tamoxifen price uk cialis preis apotheke o"sterreich cialis gdzie kupic atarax online order what does dramamine do colospa order online what is cipro medication for maine low cost drugs elderly disabled india cleocin price solubilidad ciprofloxacina clorhidrato side effects of crestor 10mg tablets bactroban shortage 2012 where can i buy vpxl online pharmacy no prescription needed voltaren fast bactroban delivery famciclovir buy online over counter cough syrup has codeine promethazine discontinued use of lisinopril where can i buy kamagra oral jelly in south africa retino-a cream 0,05 buy canada indian norvasc phenergan children bayer healthcare annual report 2010 coversyl plus side effects weight gain buy hyzaar tablets online keppra mg buy ordering low dose naprosyn cephalexin online in canada levaquin order canada where to buy lemonade diet pills in canada avapro prescriptions licensed pharmacy ditropan noble drugs coupon zoloft in italian brand name zebeta online disfuncion erectil y diabetes mellitus lopid 600 mg tab donde puedo comprar viagra soft tricor generic for can order prescription drugs online compazine pharmacy prices list how to take zyvox mg inhouse pharmacy biz coupon code canadian health insurance association i pill ethionamide website starting metformin dose thundercats new alliances full episode synthroid weight loss pills order furosemide online lasix generic luvox overnight pharmacy american cialis discount pharmacy australia viewbank yasmin generic india can allegra make you gain weight how to tell if cialis is real kamagra generic for order antabuse rx buy etodolac for daily use my antabuse coupons abana himalaya medicine ayurvedic where to buy cheap generic acivir pills buy reglan greece pain meds for dogs over the counter levitra pas cher italie dose of viagra for men levitra super active sale online pill buy yagara visa generic for diovan medication do water pills make you sweat primatene mist tablets active ingredient buy aciclovir tablets uk herpes zovirax birth control online uk finpecia mg mexico nolvadex uk store lesofat side effects philippines plavix tablets 75mg how to buy metformin in london how can you get promethazine codeine syrup mail order generic wellbutrin the online drugstore vasodilan lamictal and birth control pills bipolar wellbutrin xl prices doxycycline hyclate malaria dosage what is metronidazole used to treat cheap pills prescription florinef online how to buy ginseng guide buy lorazepam online no prescription how to take rizatriptan wafers viagra soft wanted online review low altace high blood pressure medication buy chloramphenicol from canada buy viagra new zealand clonidine company online pharmacy generic brand medications how to order epivir-hbv online cigna mail order prescriptions doxycycline alcohol effects generic bactrim us benfotiamine usa sale buy albuterol sulfate online order non generic blopress grifulvin v women buy zyloprim overnight shipping cheap astelin dose information speman forte tab n 100 buy uroxatral mg online aspirin mechanism of action antiplatelet differin xp gel 0.3 reviews tetracycline 500mg antibiotics maxaman tablets online brand amoxil pills online in the canada tricor fenofibrate tablets generic uk paypal nimotop can take erythromycin alcohol levitra uk boots how to order aldactone online natural medication for anxiety uk merck proscar online safe ortho tri cyclen no prescription ordering viagra online benicar legal in england alli pills over the counter carafate precio mexico can you take zofran daily does doxycycline cause weight gain purchase lithium 300 mg cheapest liv in the uk where do i lipitor in mexico missed 3 doses of cymbalta valtrex side effects itching no prescription septilin sale kamagra cialis levitra onde comprar adalat retard cialis super active buy uk buy feldene greece endep supplier in uk order lotrel cheap sumycin drug store online costco prilosec prices buy thyroxine online no prescription uk what is doxycycline used for in animals ordering low dose nexium costco pharmacy vasotec price indinavir generic wikipedia drugs mail order olanzapine aspirin mask cheap calander buy haldol no prescription fast delivery actos dosage information feldene delivery uk zyrtec to buy from europe side effects of isoniazid 300 mg best pharmacy to order capoten how to get norvasc drug exceed-viagra-and-cialis protonix dose in renal failure do you need rx pulmicort fornisseurs viagra reverse and cure levaquin side effects allopurinol chemotherapy prophylaxis clozaril brands india www.drugstorereliablerxpills.eu buyers of didronel canada trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride 2mg generic propecia vs. brand name clomid late menstrual cycle fast prazosin delivery sarafem no prescription reviews long term side effects of amoxil rhinocort nasal spray pregnancy buy aceon online with mastercard generic toradol strengths difference between zyprexa and zyprexa zydis how much does abilify cost without insurance generic propecia kaufen clonidine discounts buy artane pills imdb we need to talk about kevin generic cialis oral jelly cialis uk online elocom crema precio colombia safe to buy generic brand cialis from uk buy antivert mg generic from aygestin endep overdose discount pharmacy australia kerrimuir metformin to buy in england yagara no prescription reviews now panax ginseng reviews clonidine to buy in england buy wellbutrin sr singapore pharmacies in windsor ca pharmacy has best price amaryl swanson diet water pills hair transplant without propecia forum finast canada head office sildenafil viagra women order alesse

Recherche

Apprenez à jardiner dans le respect de votre environnement, un site de la SNHF
http://www.

Création de Jacques Castagné (D.Ronflard)

Jardine avec Bottine et ses amis. de 3 à 11 ans

Définition du mot jardin au fil du temps

Jardin fermé de Blaircastle Ecosse (C.Secq)Apparu au Moyen Âge, le terme « jardin » ne semble pas présenter de difficulté sémantique particulière. Défini par l'Académie française comme « un lieu découvert, ordinairement clos, le plus souvent attenant à une habitation, dans lequel on cultive des légumes, on plante des fleurs, des arbres, etc. », il est doté d'une signification analogue dans la plupart des dictionnaires et encyclopédies. Et pourtant : la réalité paraît beaucoup plus complexe et, de ce fait, bien difficile à cerner en quelques mots.

Caractérisés par leur clôture, leur fonction - utilitaire ou d'agrément -, la place importante occupée par le végétal ou encore le rôle de l'homme, qui y « cultive » et « plante », les jardins présentent en fait une diversité de visages qui s'accommode mal d'une rapide description. Incomplètes ou contestables selon les périodes et les lieux, les définitions se trouvent même parfois invalidées par certaines créations... pourtant qualifiées de « jardins » !

Un lieu ordinairement clos
"Espace clos", "terrain généralement clos", "lieu [...] ordinairement fermé", "pièce de terre [...] renfermée de murailles", les dictionnaires paraissent unanimes sur un point particulier : le jardin est clos. Rien d'étonnant d'ailleurs puisque la clôture permet de différencier ce dernier du simple champ cultivable et d'en faire un espace à part dans la nature, qu'elle soit sauvage ou cultivée. Cette caractéristique trouve sa source dans l'étymologie même du terme. Adopté en France au XIIe siècle, le mot « jardin » dérive, en effet, du francique gart ou gardo signifiant "ceinture" ou "clôture" ; utilisé en gallo-romain comme épithète d'hortus (hortus gardinus), il devient en ancien français jard puis jardin. Imaginaire ou réel, le jardin conserve longtemps la particularité d'être un espace fermé. Dans la Bible, celui du Cantique des cantiques ne reçoit qu'un seul qualificatif : il est clos. L'Eden, quant à lui, se trouve protégé, après la Chute, par un ange au glaive flamboyant qui en interdit l'entrée : il l'est donc également. Même constat dans la réalité, en particulier au Moyen Âge où la clôture a tout simplement une fonction pratique, servant à protéger les plantations des bêtes errantes et des maraudeurs. Branches entrelacées (plessis), haies, pieux taillés en pointe ou simples palissades, treillis, barrières et même murs de pierres ou de briques permettent d'isoler un espace établi à la mesure de l'homme et installé à l'abri d'une nature longtemps considérée comme hostile. Profanes ou religieuses, la littérature et l'iconographie de l'époque font aussi la part belle à la clôture, dotée de significations diverses dans le registre de la symbolique.

Dès la fin du Moyen Âge pourtant, le jardin s'ouvre sur le monde extérieur. À la Renaissance, si le giardino segreto, entièrement ceint de murs et installé à l'écart de la composition principale, se présente comme le prolongement de l'enclos médiéval, l'aménagement de vues et percées sur le paysage permet d'instaurer un dialogue entre création humaine et nature. Quelques décennies plus tard, la perspective longue et le point de fuite à l'infini unissent plus étroitement encore environnement et jardin dans les somptueuses réalisations de Le Nôtre. C'est d'ailleurs à cette époque qu'apparaît le haha que généralisent, au siècle suivant, les Britanniques dans le but d'effacer visuellement les limites de leurs parcs pittoresques. Installé autour de la propriété, ce fossé sec, court, profond et souvent maçonné, empêche veaux, génisses et autre bétail d'investir les lieux tout en laissant totalement ouverte la vue sur les prés et champs environnants. En prenant la nature pour modèle, le paysagiste William Kent choisit d'ailleurs d'abolir toute frontière : "Il franchit la clôture et vit que toute la nature est un jardin" (Horace Walpole). Plus besoin dès lors d'enclore les lieux, du moins de manière ostensible. Et pourtant ! Sur ce point comme ailleurs, l'éclectisme se manifeste dans les jardins contemporains. Rien de commun, en effet, entre les propriétés totalement ouvertes de nombreuses banlieues nord-américaines et les haies de thuyas impénétrables, véritable "béton vert", longtemps chères aux habitants de l'Hexagone. Une question de tempérament et de sensibilité sans doute.

Pour lire la suite, TELECHARGEZ L'ARTICLE EN PDF

Odile Lacaille d'Esse
Article paru dans Jardins de France
Mars 2009

 

acheter les actes du colloque Quand les plantes se parlent