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Apprenez à jardiner dans le respect de votre environnement, un site de la SNHF

Création de Jacques Castagné (D.Ronflard)

Jardine avec Bottine et ses amis. de 3 à 11 ans

Les jardins pluriels

Le bosquet des bains d'Appollon à Versailles (O.Lacaille d'Esse)À l'image de certains édifices d'allure très composite, les jardins présentent parfois des visages variés. Si quelques-uns deviennent "pluriels" par transformations et ajouts au fil des siècles, d'autres optent délibérément pour l'éclectisme et ce, dès leur création. Une recette qui permet de multiplier les plaisirs.

Empreintes successives du temps qui passe, combinaison de différents styles ou juxtaposition d'espaces indépendants, l'art paysager se prête volontiers au jeu de la variété. Plus que jamais d'actualité, les jardins à facettes multiples jouent les vedettes dans les publications et s'invitent en force chez les particuliers... au risque, toutefois, de constituer des ensembles disparates dépourvus de cohérence et d'harmonie.

Des jardins dans le jardin
En rupture avec la structure d'ensemble et clairement délimités par des murs ou des haies, certains espaces aménagés au sein des compositions paysagères se présentent comme des lieux à part, des jardins dans le jardin. Ainsi en est-il, dans l'Italie des XV et XVIe siècles, du giardino segreto. Caractéristique de l'art paysager de cette époque à l'égal des jeux d'eau, grottes ou nymphées, il se
distingue délibérément du giardino grande. Marginal voire annexe, il tranche même par sa singularité. Dans une composition où parterres, bassins, allées et terrasses se répondent, s'opposent ou s'accordent pour conférer aux lieux une harmonie, le jardin secret affiche sa différence. Dissocié du tracé général, il s'inscrit dans la dépendance du palais ou de la villa, s'apparentant à une pièce rajoutée, une composante de l'édifice. Résurgence de l'hortus conclusus médiéval, il est d'ailleurs ceint de murs qui semblent l'isoler du temps qui passe et de l'espace qui l'entoure. Sorte d'anachronisme, de monde à part réservé au seul usage du propriétaire et de ses proches, le giardino segreto se veut un lieu intime, privé, où végétaux et aménagements divers, subtilement mis en scène, concourent à réjouir la vue et les autres sens. En témoigne la description du jardin du Cardinal d'Este faite par Nicolas Audebert dans son Journal de voyage en Italie (1574-1578) : « À l'autre bout du palais, du côté de la ville, il y a un petit jardin carré appelé jardin secret tout clos de hautes murailles contre lesquelles il y a des grenadiers, citronniers et orangers rampants, et chargés de fruits, qui couvrent entièrement tout le mur, sinon quelques endroits où il y a des niches et statues tout autour : et mêmement à main droite en entrant il y a au coin une grotte où est une très belle licorne d'un marbre fort blanc.

Le jardin est divisé en quatre, ayant au milieu un pavillon rond [...]. Aux quatre coins de ce pavillon, il y a de petites fontaines qui jettent l'eau en forme de miroirs étant plate et large. » Séparé, isolé, anachronique, le jardin secret n'en est pas moins inscrit dans son époque. À l'heure de l'humanisme et des Grandes Découvertes, il s'érige en jardin de savoir, reflétant la fermentation intellectuelle et scientifique de son temps. Annexe du studiolo, cabinet de travail des princes et savants, il prolonge à l'extérieur les collections accumulées dans cette pièce. Outre les traditionnelles simples des monastères médiévaux, il accueille à l'envi les végétaux des contrées lointaines récemment introduits en Europe. Venus des Indes occidentales, d'Egypte, de Turquie ou d'ailleurs, de nombreuses plantes rares et pérégrines s'invitent dans le giardino segreto où elles sont étudiées et collectionnées afin d'enrichir le répertoire des espèces inventoriées. Lieu de connaissance, laboratoire d'observation, instrument de différenciation et d'identification, le jardin secret annonce les futurs systèmes de classification de Tournefort puis de Linné. Par son rôle scientifique, plus encore que par sa structure désuète ou sa situation isolée, il se démarque à nouveau du giardino grande davantage voué aux fêtes, jeux, réceptions et spectacles. Dans un registre assez différent, les bosquets des parcs classiques constituent, eux aussi, des jardins dans le jardin. Disposés de part et d'autre de la composition principale, ils dissimulent au regard, à l'aide de grandes haies, des chambres vertes à taille humaine, intimes et fantaisistes qui s'opposent radicalement à la rigueur et à la démesure prévalant partout ailleurs. Créés pour générer la surprise et l'émerveillement, ils font office de contrepoint à la stricte régularité, un peu monotone, du tracé général et servent davantage au divertissement qu'à la promenade. Isolés et invisibles des principaux points de vue, les bosquets peuvent d'ailleurs évoluer au fil des siècles sans nuire à l'unité d'ensemble. À Versailles, par exemple, le bosquet des Bains d'Apollon, entièrement réaménagé dans le style anglo-chinois par le peintre Hubert Robert à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, ne dépare nullement l'aménagement classique du parc.




Odile Lacaille d'Esse
Article paru dans Jardins de France en mai 2008

acheter les actes du colloque Quand les plantes se parlent