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Apprenez à jardiner dans le respect de votre environnement, un site de la SNHF

Jardine avec Bottine et ses amis. de 3 à 11 ans

Bien tailler les hydrangeas

Quand on pense hortensia, on a tout de suite en tête de grosses boules rondes. Mais il ne s'agit là que de l'une des espèces d'hydrangeas. Une famille qui déborde de vitalité pour nous offrir d'infinies variations pour composer nos massifs de terre de bruyère. Et la quête de nouveautés continue, avec chaque année des cultivars qui élargissent les formes, les couleurs des fleurs et des feuilles, les conditions de culture. Des arbustes faciles et généreux, qu'une bonne taille pourra même rendre somptueux.
Le genre est composé d'au moins 80 espèces, les unes américaines, découvertes dans la nature au XVIIIe siècle aux États-Unis, Mexique, et jusqu'au sud du Chili et de l'Argentine (Hydrangea.quercifolia, H. arborescens, H. seemannii, H.serratiflolia), les autres asiatiques, depuis longtemps cultivées dans leurs jardins par les Chinois et les Japonais (Hydrangea macrophylla mais également H. aspera, H. involucrata, H. paniculata). D'abord connus par leur représentation sur les papiers, tapisseries et soieries, les premiers arbustes sont envoyés en Angleterre en 1789, puis en France où ils suscitent l'enthousiasme sous le nom de "rosiers du Japon". Après une période de relatif oubli, c'est à la Belle Époque, il y a cent ans, à l'occasion des grandes expositions horticoles qui sont organisées à Paris, notamment par la SNHF, que ces fleurs sont de nouveau en vogue et que le nom d'hortensia retrouve ses lettres de noblesse.

Bien tailler les hortensias et autres hydrangeas
Conseils de Jean Renault, ancien pépiniériste, créateur du Jardin des Renaudies en Mayenne, président honoraire de la section Arbres & Arbustes d'Ornement.

Hydrangea macrophylla
Lorsque l'on taille cet hortensia, il faut le faire fin avril, en coupant 1 tige sur 4, à ras de terre. De nouvelles tiges, fortes, apparaîtront, et l'oeil formé à l'extrémité donnera l'année suivante une boule ou une tête plate. Il ne faut pas tailler les inflorescences à l'automne, lorsque les plantes sont exposées aux gelées de printemps, mais attendre fin avril (les inflorescences forment une protection naturelle). Les H. macrophylla fleurissent sur les tiges de l'année précédente.
H.arborescence'Annabelle' (G.Berthe)Hydrangea arborescens
Cette plante très ramifiée, résistant au froid, épanouit des inflorescences blanches, abondantes, plates ou en boules. Le plus connu est 'Annabelle', très spectaculaire avec ses grosses boules blanches qui peuvent atteindre 30 cm de diamètre, en juillet. En 2007, est apparue la variété 'Hayes Stardust', à fleurs doubles. Cet hydrangea fleurit sur les tiges de l'année. Il faut le tailler à 5/10 cm du sol, et bien l'arroser la première année de plantation.
Hydrangea aspera
Une espèce adaptée aux grands jardins, la plupart des H. aspera pouvant atteindre 2 à 4 m de hauteur. Ils portent des têtes plates de couleur mauve, parfois blanches. S'ils deviennent trop encombrants, ils peuvent être taillés très courts. Sur les nouvelles tiges, apparaissent de longues et grandes feuilles. Elles ne fleuriront que l'année suivante.
Hydrangea paniculata H.paniculata 'Pink Diamond' (G.Berthe)
Tous les terrains conviennent à cette espèce rustique, sauf très humides. Mais attention : il doit être taillé très court, fin mars-début avril, en le faisant grandir de 10 cm par an. Les yeux se développent et la tige atteint de 0,50 à 2 m de hauteur au moment de la floraison, qui a lieu de fin juillet à début octobre. Il doit être taillé tous les ans pour avoir des fleurs spectaculaires. Certains cultivars sont à tête pleine, c'est-à-dire avec beaucoup de fleurs stériles. Ils sont souvent blancs, mais ces dernières années sont apparus des cultivars à fleurs roses et rouges. Si votre H. paniculata est très vieux, avec des tiges de 5 à 10 cm de diamètre, vous pouvez couper celles-ci à 50 cm du sol. De nouvelles tiges de 1,50 m parfois, apparaîtront, avec de très grandes inflorescences à l'extrémité.
Hydrangea petiolaris
Cette espèce grimpante s'accroche au mur avec ses crampons. Elle pousse d'abord lentement, au début de son installation, mais en vieillissant peut couvrir une surface importante. H. petiolaris porte des fleurs plates abondantes. Il n'a pas besoin d'être taillé.
Hydrangea quercifolia
C'est l'hortensia à feuilles de chêne, qui nous vient d'Amérique. Pas assez utilisé dans nos jardins, il a des feuilles persistantes brunissant à l'automne, porte des corymbes en cônes allongés (ou, rarement, en boules). Il pousse assez lentement, mais peut atteindre de 1 à 3 m selon les cultivars. Très rustique, H. quercifolia convient à tous les terrains, même caillouteux. Il faut bien l'arroser au cours des premières années. Si vous le taillez, vous n'aurez pas de fleurs l'année de la taille, mais les feuilles seront plus belles.
Hydrangea serrata
Il vient du Japon, où il vit à l'état sauvage. Il aime l'ombre, mais dans les régions au nord de la France, il pousse bien au soleil. C'est un arbuste de taille moyenne, de 1 à 2 m, qui pousse lentement les premières années. Il n'a pas besoin d'être taillé. Il produit des inflorescences aussi bien sur les pousses terminales que latérales. Ses têtes sont le plus souvent plates, avec des couleurs uniformes ou bicolores. Il ne craint pas le gel : si l'oeil terminal est atteint, les yeux secondaires se développent et fleurissent. Il peut fleurir sur les pousses de l'année.


Portrait de MH LoaëcMarie-Hélène Loaëc
Article paru dans Jardins de France
Juillet 2008

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