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Quand on parle du houx....

Les prés culands (C.Secq)Ilex - connu en Europe par le houx - est un vaste genre qui compte plus de 800 espèces dans le monde et des milliers de cultivars, à feuillage persistant ou caduc, d'une grande diversité. Leur feuillage et leurs fruits d'automne en font des arbustes ou de petits arbres très décoratifs dans les jardins et les parcs. Ils sont même utilisables en bac, pour la décoration urbaine, résistant très bien à la pollution. Même sans feuilles, les tiges, garnies généreusement d'attrayantes baies, généralement rouges, mais éventuellement jaunes, orange, blanches ou noires, font merveille dans les arrangements floraux.

Des sexes séparés
Le houx est une plante dioïque : chaque individu est mâle ou femelle. Ce sont les femelles qui produisent les baies. Les fleurs groupées, à court pédoncule, apparaissent fin mai, début juin, sur les rameaux extérieurs. Petites et blanchâtres, elles passent la plupart du temps inaperçues : quatre pétales blancs à pointe pourpre, recouverts d'une surface cireuse. Les fleurs mâles sont pourvues de quatre étamines saillantes à anthères jaunes, les fleurs femelles d'un pistil vert, court, ovale. Souvent, une même plante possède à la fois des fleurs mâles et des fleurs femelles, atrophiées. Quelques cultivars, dont 'J.-C. van Tol', développent de façon permanente des fleurs des deux sexes, qui s'autopollinisent sans qu'il soit nécessaire d'avoir d'autres houx dans les parages.

Les houx polygames existent donc, mais sont malgré tout assez rares. Une plante aux multiples usages Les fruits apparaissent à la fin de l'automne, sous la forme de baies écarlates, ou drupes. Elles contiennent quatre graines brunes, dont la dispersion est assurée par les oiseaux qui se nourrissent de leur pulpe jaune, farineuse. Les cotylédons qui émergent au printemps suivant, ou l'année d'après, sont mous. Les feuilles coriaces n'apparaissent que plus tard. L'écorce est lisse et grise, parfois teintée de vert olive, contenant une substance gluante. Celle-ci était jadis utilisée pour capturer les oiseaux qui restaient collés aux rameaux préalablement broyés. Le bois, blanc à crème clair, est très dense et lourd, mais néanmoins tendre et facile à travailler. Il contient peu d'eau par rapport à son poids sec, et constitue donc un excellent combustible, même "vert". Il est principalement utilisé pour l'ornementation, la sculpture et l'ébénisterie, notamment en marqueterie (en tant qu'"incrustation" blanche ou teint dans sa masse en noir). Il imite alors l'ébène en donnant un beau bois poli. Les tiges, plus lisses, fournissent notamment des bâtons de marche ou des bâtons souples pour la confection des fouets. ... intéressante en médecine.

Les houx, à l'instar du caféier et du cacaoyer, sont riches en caféine. En Forêt Noire, une sorte de thé est confectionnée avec ses feuilles. L'extrait de caféine a parfois été utilisé pour soigner certaines maladies cardiaques. La décoction de racines, le "vin de houx", l'infusion des feuilles, sont d'emploi traditionnel en médecine populaire. Plusieurs espèces font partie de la médecine traditionnelle chinoise : Ilex chinensis, Ilex cornuta, Ilex rotunda... Le maté, yerba maté ou thé des jésuites, boisson répandue en Amérique du Sud, est préparé à base de feuilles de houx du Paraguay (Ilex paraguayensis). C'est un stimulant nerveux, musculaire et cérébral, qui a été utilisé pendant la Première Guerre mondiale par les armées britanniques, françaises et allemandes. Si une vilaine toux vous afflige, une petite infusion de feuilles de houx vous fera le plus grand bien ! Enfin, si la déprime hivernale s'empare de vous, plantez du houx !

Pour lire la suite, TELECHARGEE L'ARTICLE EN PDF

Pierre Paris (C.Secq)Pierre Paris
Créateur de l'arboretum des Prés des Culands (Loiret)
Conservateur de la collection nationale d'Ilex
Article paru dans Jardins de France
Janvier-février 2008

acheter les actes du colloque Quand les plantes se parlent