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Parfums de roses, une richesse incroyable

Soeur Emmanuelle (Obtention Delbard)Nulle autre fleur n'est aussi riche en nuances olfactives que la rose. Pour les rosiéristes d'aujourd'hui, le parfum est un critère important de sélection. Il permet de répondre aux attentes des amateurs, nostalgiques de cette qualité. Pour les parfumeurs, l'huile essentielle de roses reste un composant entrant dans la préparation de leurs plus grandes créations.

Traditionnellement, deux espèces botaniques sont utilisées en parfumerie : la Rosa damascena, ou rose de Damas, est cultivée en Bulgarie, Turquie et Russie. La Rosa centifolia, ou rose de mai, est cultivée au Maroc, et encore un peu à Grasse. Mais dans cet ancien haut lieu des cultures de roses parfumées, une seule entreprise - Chanel - possède encore aujourd'hui des champs de production. Comme dans beaucoup de domaines, la Chine s'est introduite sur ce marché, et produit désormais en quantité importante une troisième espèce, de type Kushui (Rosa sertata X Rosa rugosa). Ces nouvelles cultures lui permettent de prendre une position importante parmi les fournisseurs d'huiles essentielles de roses.

Récolter le parfum des roses
La cueillette des roses destinées à la parfumerie est une opération délicate : elle s'effectue dès l'aube, fleur à fleur à la main, le plus rapidement possible, en ce tout début de journée où elles sont le plus riches en produits volatils. Après le lever du soleil, la fleur va évaporer son huile essentielle : c'est pour elle un mode de "transpiration", qui lui permet de lutter contre la montée de la chaleur. Cesera trop tard pour le parfumeur... (mais le bon moment pour l'amateur qui veut profiter du parfum de ses roses !) Lorsque les roses arrivent à la distillerie, elles doivent être étalées en un tapis aussi mince que possible et retournées régulièrement pour éviter leur échauffement qui entraînerait une fermentation dévalorisant l'huile essentielle obtenue. Cette opération se fait à proximité des alambics afin de pouvoir les alimenter dès que possible et limiter les transports. Les pétales de roses sont traités par solvant organique, pour obtenir l'absolu de roses, ou par distillation à la vapeur d'eau pour obtenir l'huile essentielle. Deux à trois kilos de pétales de roses vont permettre d'extraire un gramme d'huile essentielle. Cette huile essentielle contient de l'alcool phényléthylique, porteur de l'odeur traditionnelle de rose. Au cours de la distillation à la vapeur, cet alcool, soluble, va passer dans l'eau de façon importante... suffisamment importante pour la parfumer délicatement et la transformer en "eau de rose", qui va bien entendu être conservée et utilisée par ailleurs. L'huile essentielle obtenue sera différente selon les conditions de production et les techniques d'extraction : les parfumeurs parlent véritablement de "crus", comme pour les lavandes... ou les vins. L'examen olfactif des échantillons va guider le choix du parfumeur, qui, d'une année sur l'autre, recherchera la continuité dans les effluves perçus, afin d'assurer la constance de sa composition, quitte à faire des assemblages.

Bien sentir une rose
Le meilleur moment est le matin de bonne heure, avant que les fleurs n'aient reçu trop de soleil et ne se soient trop ouvertes.


Marie-Hélène LoaëcMarie-Hélène Loaëc
Article paru
dans Jardins de France
Dossier spécial roses
Mai 2007

Découvrez les activités de la section Roses de la SNHF.


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