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Roses et rosiéristes

Meilland et Lolita Lempicka (MH Loaec)Il y a plus de quinze ans, en juin 1991, Jardins de France vous dévoilait comment les plus grands rosiéristes d'alors imaginaient les "Rosiers de l'an 2000". Aujourd'hui, ces rosiers sont bel et bien dans nos jardins et les espaces verts de nos villes.

À travers la diversité des réponses alors faites par la dizaine de personnalités du monde de la rose interrogée, trois priorités se dégageaient : dans l'ordre, la résistance aux maladies et la rusticité des plantes ; une floraison de longue durée ; enfin, le parfum. Effectivement, dans leurs nouvelles hybridations, après avoir recherché, à la grande époque des roses dites "modernes" (surtout la 2e moitié du XXe siècle) des formes de fleurs parfaites et des couleurs inédites, les rosiéristes ont pris conscience des nouvelles attentes des jardiniers, qu'ils soient amateurs ou des services publics : disposer d'arbustes rustiques, résistants aux principales maladies, et fleurissant pendant plusieurs mois. Le parfum s'est également présenté comme un critère de sélection important : quelle est la personne qui, en voyant une rose, ne s'en approche pour la sentir ? La rose est inconditionnellement liée à notre sens olfactif. Enfin, ce qui a marqué également la fin du dernier siècle et le début de celui-ci, c'est l'engouement pour les rosiers paysagers : pour eux, l'important n'est pas la beauté de la fleur en elle-même, mais l'effet de masse qu'assure leur profusion - une floraison abondante aussi bien en intensité qu'en durée - ainsi que leur entretien réduit au strict minimum : la taille n'est plus nécessaire, et les branches se dégarnissent d'elles-mêmes de leurs fleurs fanées. Ce sont ces qualités notamment qui ont incité, au cours de ces dernières années, les espaces verts à utiliser largement ces arbustes dans leurs nouvelles réalisations, pouvant ainsi garnir de grands espaces avec peu d'entretien. Et comme ils se déclinent en plusieurs couleurs, ils donnent une véritable note de gaieté à l'environnement : ce sont par exemple les Meillandécor de Meilland, la gamme Ediparc d'Edirose, les Décorosiers de Verdia, ou encore les rosiers couvre-sol de Jackson & Perkins, édités en France par Guillot.

Du pinceau de l'obtenteur au linéaire de jardinerie
La rose est l'affaire d'un grand nombre de professionnels, dont les tâches se complètent. Au départ, se trouve l'obtenteur, dont les principales qualités doivent être la minutie, le sens de l'observation et la patience. C'est lui qui va induire des fécondations croisées, en mêlant artificiellement pollen et ovaire, choisissant les parents selon leurs qualités et leurs caractéristiques. Il va ensuite mettre en culture les graines obtenues, observer les plantules, d'abord en serre puis en plein air, sélectionner les plus intéressantes (pas plus de 2 ou 3 %), les multiplier de façon végétative (pour en conserver tous les caractères), ceci pendant plusieurs années, en affinant progressivement sa sélection. C'est dans ce travail de sélection que se manifeste réellement le talent de l'obtenteur. C'est là qu'il doit exprimer un véritable "don". Sur 10 000 essais d'hybridation, pas plus d'une rose méritera d'être multipliée à grande échelle et commercialisée.

L'éditeur sélectionne les meilleures variétés françaises ou européennes de son ou ses partenaires : Meilland et Delbard par exemple éditent leurs propres roses, mais la société varoise Nirp International se charge des obtentions de Michel Adam et de Bernard Sauvageot. La société Edirose regroupe quatre rosiéristes de la région Rhône-Alpes, dont Orard et Laperrière également obtenteurs, et édite en complément des obtentions Harkness et Tantau. Verdia propose sous la marque commune Décorosiers les rosiers paysagers de Noack. La Star de Doué réunit quatre rosiéristes de Doué-la-Fontaine, qui proposent quelques exclusivités de Bernard Panozzo. Renoard travaille avec François Dorieux. Les Pépinières de la Saulaie proposent leurs propres exclusivités. Globe Planter vient tout récemment de faire affaire avec Kordes. Guillot édite la gamme couvre-sol de Jackson & Perkins. Truffaut a passé des accords avec l'éditeur danois Boeflora pour distribuer en France les rosiers de Poulsen Roser et Roses Forever. Les grandes enseignes de la distribution spécialisée peuvent acheter ainsi les droits de rosiers et les réserver à leurs magasins (c'est le cas de Truffaut, mais aussi de Jardiland, et tout récemment de Gamm vert).


Marie-Hélène LoaëcMarie-Hélène Loaëc
Article paru dans Jardins de France
Dossier spécial Roses
Mai 2007

Découvrez les activités de la section Roses de la SNHF.


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