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Les solanacées : une diversité exceptionnelle

Cette famille de plantes comprend entre 3 000 et 4 000 espèces, réparties en 90 genres aux morphologies variées : arbres, arbustes, lianes, herbes vivaces ou annuelles. Bien qu'elle soit présente presque dans le monde entier, la plupart des espèces croît dans les régions tropicales, et plus spécialement en Amérique du Sud. La famille des Solanacées revêt une grande importance économique, car beaucoup de plantes ornementales (pétunia, datura, tabac...), industrielles (tabac), et surtout bon nombre de fruits et légumes (tomate, aubergine, piments et poivrons, pomme de terre...) en sont issus. À celles-ci s'ajoutent des plantes officinales, toxiques, voire hallucinogènes, que le folklore associe à des histoires mythologiques et aux rituels de sorcellerie, telles que la belladone, la jusquiame, la stramoine et la mandragore.

Pétunia (C.Secq)Quelques éléments de botanique
Les feuilles sont composées ou entières, généralement alternes, et portées par un pétiole. Solitaires ou réunies en inflorescence (cymes), les fleurs sont régulières, et constituées de :
- cinq sépales verts, soudés, persistant sur le fruit,
- cinq pétales colorés, soudés, formant souvent un long tube : fleur en trompette ou campanulée, comme celles du tabac ou du datura. Parfois, la partie soudée de la corolle est bien plus courte que les lobes, et les fleurs sont en forme d'étoiles, comme celles de la tomate ou de la pomme de terre,
- cinq étamines fixées sur les pétales,
- un ovaire supère, à deux loges mais un seul stigmate.
Le fruit est entouré à la base par le calice persistant. Il est soit charnu (baie), soit sec et s'ouvrant par des fentes (fruit déhiscent = capsule). Il contient de nombreuses petites graines rondes et aplaties.

Les Solanacées à l'Herbier de Paris
En raison de leur intérêt scientifique et économique, les Solanacées ont été choisies comme "famille test" dans le cadre du programme de rénovation et de reclassement de l'Herbier de Paris : l'informatisation des planches en collections est en cours, et pourrait être terminée à la fin de l'année. Cela représente près de 40 000 planches d'herbiers, dont environ 15 000 pour le genre Solanum à lui seul. Cette collection de Solanacées, de grand intérêt patrimonial, compte plus de mille types, c'est-à-dire plus de mille spécimens ayant servi de référence pour la description de nouvelles espèces. Ainsi, le genre Petunia a été décrit en 1803 par Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, alors directeur du Muséum, à partir de plantes récoltées en 1767 à Montevideo (Uruguay) par Philibert Commerson, naturaliste et explorateur français. Ces plantes, les premières à avoir jamais porté le nom de Petunia, sont les spécimens-types de ce genre, toujours conservées à l'Herbier de Paris. Mais l'Herbier National compte de nombreux autres spécimens de Solanacées datant des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles. Il s'agit souvent de plantes récoltées dans le Jardin du Roy ou Jardin des Plantes, et faisant partie des herbiers des plus éminents botanistes : Adanson, Jussieu, Lamarck, Tournefort... ou bien encore de plantes récoltées lors des grandes explorations scientifiques de l'époque, comme le voyage aux Amériques de Humboldt et Bonpland (1799 à 1804).

Pommes de terre (C.Secq)La recherche sur les Solanacées
Étant donné l'importance économique des genres Nicotiana et Solanum, la plupart des recherches sur cette famille est actuellement réalisée par des équipes internationales (par exemple Planetary Biodiversity Inventory-Solanum Project). Cependant, les Solanacées sont aussi l'objet d'études plus particulières au Muséum. Ainsi, un nouveau genre endémique de Madagascar, appelé Tsoala, a été décrit par un botaniste de l'Herbier en 1992. Et dans le cadre de la rédaction de la Flore de Madagascar, l'étude complète de la famille a été publiée en 1994 par le Muséum. Autre exemple du travail des chercheurs, la solution apportée au mystère des traces de tabac trouvées dans les momies égyptiennes : en 1976, l'étude botanique de la momie de Ramsès II avait été confiée au Muséum, en la personne du Dr. Michèle Lescot, spécialiste en anatomie végétale de l'Herbier National. Elle fit une découverte sensationnelle : des fragments de feuilles de tabac parmi les débris végétaux du baume viscéral de la momie. Cette identification la laissa perplexe et provoqua les railleries de ses confrères, car le tabac pousse naturellement en Amérique, et est donc censé arriver dans l'Ancien Monde plus de 2 500 ans après Ramsès II ! La découverte sera cependant confirmée par plusieurs autres botanistes européens et par un entomologiste du Muséum, le Dr. J. R. Steffan, qui découvrit la présence d'un coléoptère parasite du tabac dans ces mêmes fragments végétaux. Enfin, en 1992, des analyses toxicologiques effectuées en Allemagne révèleront que les baumes et les cheveux prélevés sur des dizaines de momies royales et princières contiennent de la nicotine, composant du tabac, et ce en proportions parfois très importantes !

Toutes ces données scientifiques ont été récupérées par divers individus pour soutenir des théories plus ou moins farfelues : traversées transatlantiques par les Egyptiens ou les Phéniciens plusieurs milliers d'années avant notre ère, contacts culturels entre les constructeurs des pyramides aztèques
et égyptiennes, liens commerciaux entretenus à travers le Pacifique par les Chinois... voire existence de l'Atlantide ! Cependant, la vérité est bien moins extraordinaire. En effet, une espèce de tabac (Nicotiana africana) pousse à l'état sauvage au sud de l'Afrique (Namibie), mais bien que découverte en 1975, son existence est restée méconnue pendant longtemps. On sait aussi maintenant qu'il existe des espèces sauvages de tabac en Australie et en Polynésie...

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Portrait de Claude BureauxClaude Bureaux
Chef-jardinier du Jardin des Plantes jusqu'en 2003, en charge maintenant de la diffusion des connaissances.
Article paru dans Jardins de France en 2008

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