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Recherche

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Agapanthus 'Blue Heaven' (La plante du mois)

Jardine avec Bottine et ses amis. de 3 à 11 ans

Adaptation des plantes au manque d'eau

Dès le début de la sortie de l'eau et de la colonisation des continents par les plantes, l'évolution a développé de nombreux caractères contribuant à limiter la dessiccation des tissus et à mieux exploiter une ressource hydrique irrégulière.

La combinaison de ces caractères contribue fortement à la grande diversité actuelle du monde végétal, qui est essentiellement façonné et structuré par son rapport à l'eau.

LES ORIGINES

La paléobotanique -- c'est-à-dire l'étude des végétaux fossiles -- nous apprend que les plantes vertes terrestres actuelles (les Embryophytes) descendent toutes de représentants très anciens du groupe des algues vertes (Chlorophytes). C'est ainsi que deux petites algues vertes très communes dans les eaux douces de nos régions tempérées (Chara vulgaris et Coleochaete orbicularis, Figure 1) ressemblent beaucoup aux ancêtres aquatiques des Embryophytes qui vivaient il y a 500 millions d'années.

La conquête des continents

Les premières plantes terrestres sont apparues à l'ère primaire, vers la fin de l'Ordovicien (il y a 450 millions d'années), accompagnées dans leur conquête des continents par des champignons et des arthropodes. Leur diversification a été extrêmement rapide à l'échelle des temps géologiques, avec de nombreuses lignées déjà bien représentées dès le Dévonien inférieur (-400 millions d'années). Au Carbonifère (-350 millions d'années), les continents étaient couverts de forêts de plantes à spores et à graines de toutes tailles (Figure 2), accompagnées de champignons, d'insectes et de batraciens. À titre de comparaison et pour fixer les idées en termes de durée, les dinosaures se sont éteints il y a "seulement" 65 millions d'années...

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Portrait de Jean GarbayeJean Garbaye
INRA Nancy

Colloque scientifique "L'eau en horticulture, économiser maintenant" 2007

acheter les actes du colloque Quand les plantes se parlent