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Apprenez à jardiner dans le respect de votre environnement, un site de la SNHF

Agapanthus 'Blue Heaven' (La plante du mois)

Jardine avec Bottine et ses amis. de 3 à 11 ans

Encourager la biodiversité au jardin

Index de l'article
Encourager la biodiversité au jardin
Page 2
Toutes les pages

Le jardin est un véritable écosystème. Apprenez à maintenir l’équilibre entre animaux, végétaux, micro-organismes… pour des plantes en bonne santé et un jardin plein de vie !

Les auxiliaires biologiques : nos alliés contre les nuisibles

Encourager la biodiversité au jardin, c'est créer un environnement favorable à un équilibre entre un nombre varié d'espèces végétales et animales qui contribuent à la vie au jardin et nous aident à lutter contre les organismes nuisibles. Il peut s'agir d'oiseaux, de reptiles, de batraciens, de mammifères, d'insectes, qui se nourrissent ou qui parasitent les ennemis de nos cultures. Il faut donc chercher à les attirer car ils nous apportent une aide précieuse. Les principales espèces utiles sont les suivantes : l’araignée, la belette, le carabe doré, la coccinelle, la chauve-souris, la couleuvre, le crapaud, la chrysope, la guêpe parasite, la grenouille, le hérisson, le lézard, la musaraigne, l’oiseau, le rapace, la punaise, la syrphe. Plusieurs solutions sont possibles pour attirer ces auxiliaires, comme la constitution de haies champêtres diversifiées, de massifs d’arbustes, ou la réalisation d'abris (petits jardins en ville ou zone péri-urbaine).

Pour reconnaitre les auxilliaires, CLIQUEZ ICI

Création de haies et massifs champêtres

photo de haie uniformephoto de haie variéeLes haies et massifs champêtres sont des associations végétales de plusieurs espèces bien adaptées au sol et au climat, en accord avec le paysage naturel. Plus ce massif est varié, moins il sera vulnérable aux attaques des maladies, et plus il offrira un équilibre riche pour les oiseaux, insectes, sans oublier la qualité esthétique des différences de formes et de couleurs des fleurs, fruits et feuillages. De nombreuses espèces vont élire domicile dans votre massif champêtre : oiseaux, insectes, reptiles et autres petits mammifères. Les arbres à fleurs facilitent la vie des insectes pollinisateurs et les arbres à baie nourrissent les oiseaux, qui vont réguler les populations d'insectes. Selon les régions, on y trouve des rapaces diurnes et nocturnes (faucons, buses, éperviers, chouettes et hiboux), mais aussi des serpents (couleuvres, vipères) et petits carnassiers de l'ordre de mammifères : belettes, etc. Ces espèces carnivores protègent votre jardin en mangeant les nuisibles (campagnols et autres souris), sans toucher aux cultures. Les passereaux sont tous insectivores et limitent la population d'insectes dans les cultures. Les haies et massifs leur offrent un lieu de vie idéale leur procurant baies, graines, insectes, larves… Les insectes vivant dans une haie n'apportent pas forcément de nuisance sur une culture. Certains papillons (les hyménoptères parasites) pondent même leurs œufs dans les larves d'insectes nuisibles. De plus, les hyménoptères pollinisateurs favorisent la pollinisation et donc augmentent le rendement en graines. Ces insectes sont appelés auxiliaires de culture.

Jardiner avec la flore locale

Les meilleures espèces indigènes pour composer une haie champêtre ou un massif d’arbustes : érable champêtre (Acer campestre), cornouiller mâle (Cornus mas), noisetier (Corylus avellana), aubépine (Crataegus), fusain (Euonymus), bourdaine (Frangula dodonei), lierre (Hedera), houx (Ilex), genévrier (Juniperus), chèvrefeuille arbustif (Lonicera nitida), néflier vrai (Mespilus germanica), merisier (Prunus avium), prunellier (Prunus spinosa), nerprun (Rhamnus), églantier (Rosa canina), ronce (Rubus) (sans épines), sureau noir( Sambucus nigra), sureau à grappes (Sambucus racemosa), sorbier (Sorbus aucuparia), viorne (Viburnum)…

Entretien : une haie libre ou champêtre, ou un massif d’arbustes, poussent relativement vite et bien, surtout composés d'espèces rustiques, c'est-à-dire supportant les rigueurs de nos hivers. L'entretien en est facile et la résistance aux maladies et aux parasites bien meilleure. Une taille de nettoyage et de mise en forme est souvent indiquée, mais peu contraignante : élimination des branches mal placées, malades, mortes ou en surnombre. La taille d'hiver a des avantages incontestables : la chute du feuillage permet de bien distinguer la charpente des arbustes et de voir clairement les branches à supprimer et évite de déranger les oiseaux au moment de la nidification.

Autres zones-hôtes pour les auxiliaires biologiques : mare ou étang.
Une mare attirera crapauds, grenouilles, mais aussi les oiseaux qui viendront s’y désaltérer. Le fond de la mare peut être réalisé avec de l’argile, soigneusement damé ou, plus simplement, à l’aide d’une bâche. De nombreuses plantes aquatiques y trouveront leur place. Aménagez les rives en pentes douces et ne creusez pas trop profond (la profondeur idéale est de 0.8 à 1 mètre).

Abris : durant l’hiver, vous pouvez aménager des abris pour les auxiliaires afin de les garder dans votre jardin : fagots de bois, tas de pierres ou rochers, hautes herbes… es abris que l’on confectionne soi-même sont aussi jolis qu’utiles !

Découvrez quelques modèles d'abris à insectes

acheter les actes du colloque Quand les plantes se parlent