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Préservation de la biodiversité : enjeux autour des jardins

La biodiversité dans la salade (JN.Plagès)Les indicateurs de biodiversité répondent à une demande sociétale de connaissance sur l’état de la nature, notamment en relation avec les sociétés humaines. Ce sont des mesures quantifiées et répétables, permettant des comparaisons dans l’espace et dans le temps, utilisées principalement pour suivre en temps réel la dynamique de la biodiversité, identifier les pressions anthropiques les plus fortes, communiquer avec le public et les décideurs sur cette dynamique et ces pressions, élaborer des scénarios, stratégies et tactiques de conservation, et suivre l’efficacité des actions entreprises. Dans la suite de l’article, nous utiliserons le terme indice lorsque seule l’exigence scientifique de synthèse est envisagée, et réserverons le terme indicateur aux indices permettant l’analyse des relations entre les hommes et la biodiversité, en tenant compte des exigences sociétales. Pour suivre la dynamique de la biodiversité, indices et indicateurs doivent répondre rapidement, à la mesure du rythme actuel des modifications de la biosphère et de manière univoque par rapport aux actions humaines.

D’un point de vue sociétal, les indicateurs doivent être compréhensibles par tous, afin d’établir dialogue et compromis entre les parties prenantes. Au plan scientifique, il s’agit d’apporter une connaissance synthétique de l’état de la biodiversité, afin de dépasser l’anecdote et de quantifier des phénomènes généraux.  Ces deux objectifs sont d’autant plus ambitieux que la biodiversité est un objet complexe. Complexe par ses différents niveaux d’organisation - classiquement, la CONVENTION SUR LA DIVERSITE BIOLOGIQUE (1992) en considère trois : diversité génétique, spécifique, et écosystémique. Complexe aussi par l’hétérogénéité des entités à chacun de ces niveaux : par exemple, la diversité spécifique des bactéries et celle des vertébrés ne se caractérisent pasde la même manière et sont peu comparables. Ces complexités entraînent la multiplication des modes de construction et choix d’indices de biodiversité. Nous examinerons successivement quelques questions scientifiques autour de la construction de ces indices, les capacités de quelques indicateurs existants à répondre à cette double exigence scientifique et sociétale, le cadre général d’utilisation de ces indicateurs, et les systèmes d’observation nécessaires pour documenter ces indicateurs c à d pour suivre, analyser et éventuellement freiner les changements actuels de la biodiversité.


Denis Couvet
Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle  Paris

Colloque scientifique de la SNHF. Mai 2008

acheter les actes du colloque Quand les plantes se parlent