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Apprenez à jardiner dans le respect de votre environnement, un site de la SNHF

Agapanthus 'Blue Heaven' (La plante du mois)

Jardine avec Bottine et ses amis. de 3 à 11 ans

Jardins partagés créateurs de lien social

Si les jardins partagés trouvent bien leur place dans la composante sociale d’un développement durable, force est de constater qu’elle va se décliner de façon très diversifiée. Quels en sont la nature (de l’éducation populaire à une  éducation solidaire et émancipatrice) et les effets en termes d’utilité sociale et/ou sociétale ?

Ces activités de jardinage ont une caractéristique commune : elles s’exercent sur un espace qui n’appartient pas aux « habitants-jardiniers ». L’utilisation d’un terrain, d’un espace dépendant des parties communes d’un groupement de logements implique des liens, des relations qui les inscrivent dans un territoire. Il y aura d’emblée un impact sociétal : des relations de voisinage vont se créer plus ou moins facilement et vont générer une prise de conscience identitaire, d’abord entre les « habitants-jardiniers » puis, quand le jardin devient une plus-value environnementale pour le quartier, entre les habitants dans leur ensemble.

Une des premières questions à se poser est la suivante : quels sont les objectifs visés ?
Les plus anciens : les jardins familiaux ont une histoire, celle des jardins ouvriers. L’objectif était une éducation populaire adressée à une classe sociale précise, les ouvriers. Les jardins familiaux actuels sont plus ouverts et s’adressent à des familles qui viennent se procurer une activité saine, un complément de ressources (économique et sociale : extension du territoire privé) et du plaisir. L’utilité sociale, qui était au premier plan, a subi des évolutions. L’extension du « séjour familial » a pu, un certain temps, supplanter la production de légumes et l’activité de jardinage, devenir prétexte et support d’une vie sociale. Ces temps derniers, les difficultés liées au pouvoir d’achat des familles remettent au premier plan la production, tout en conservant une culture de la convivialité acquise en des temps meilleurs.
La gestion écologique de ces jardins (absence de pesticides chimiques, gestion économe de l’eau, gestion des déchets verts et de la fertilité au travers du compostage) est l’occasion d’une éducation solidaire très variable, dépendant de la présence de leaders initiés « éco-responsables ».
Ceci illustre bien l’idée qu’il y a une relation étroite entre une utilité sociétale (respect de l’environnement au niveau d’un territoire) et une forme d’éducation collective.

L’origine des jardins partagés est tout autre.
Les green guerillas de New York ont été créés sur l’initiative d’habitants dans des quartiers « délaissés ». En semant des fleurs dans des espaces abandonnés, ils signifiaient leur désir de reprendre en main l’image de leur quartier (aspect environnemental, la nature dans la ville, et social, l’image de leur communauté).
La rencontre de l’expérience outre-atlantique et de l’expérience française des jardins familiaux a donné naissance à un nouveau concept, « les jardins partagés ». Cette double origine en fait l’originalité et explique que, sous le vocable « jardin partagé », se déclinent toutes sortes de variantes : jardin en pied d’immeuble, jardin d’insertion, jardin pédagogique, jardin d’habitants, etc. En 1997, le forum de Lille « Jardinage et Citoyenneté » a entraîné la création d’un réseau national, « Le jardin dans tous ses états », avec sa charte « La terre en partage » (
Les plus proches des green guerillas sont les jardins d’habitants, initiatives de citoyens actifs engagés dans des mouvements associatifs à dominante écologique au sens plein du terme : allier des préoccupations sociales, environnementales, économiques et de gouvernance. Le premier en Rhône-Alpes est le jardin du Vert Luizet à Villeurbanne. Dans le contexte de 1998, alors qu’un besoin de cohésion sociale parcourait la société, une militante écologique, une professionnelle de l’insertion professionnelle et sociale, et une plasticienne se retrouvent dans le désir de jardiner « en ville » avec d’autres personnes.

Lire la suite...

Béatrice Chatte
Co-directrice de l’association Le Passe-Jardins
Conférence dans le cadre des journées à thème "Jardins, environnement et santé" Lyon 2010

acheter les actes du colloque Quand les plantes se parlent