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Diagnostic et soins des arbres

Platanus x acerifoliaÉvaluer l’état sanitaire et la résistance mécanique d’un arbre repose sur une solide méthodologie de diagnostic, basée sur la connaissance de l’arbre et de son environnement, et une observation attentive des altérations éventuelles. Le diagnostic sanitaire vise à maintenir la vitalité des arbres et à prévenir le développement des parasites. Face aux responsabilités1 des élus, gestionnaires d’espaces verts et entrepreneurs de parcs et jardins, le diagnostic mécanique évalue la dangerosité des altérations dans les lieux publics pour protéger les biens et sécuriser les personnes. De la pertinence du diagnostic et des préconisations qui en découlent dépend la qualité des soins.

Méthodologie du diagnostic

Le respect d’un mode opératoire permet de guider tout observateur arboricole dans sa démarche de diagnostic. Il existe des méthodes de référence mises au point par des spécialistes en arboriculture ornementale2. Ainsi, de façon logique, étape par étape, le diagnostic permet d’effectuer une synthèse de l’ensemble des observations réalisées à différents niveaux de l’arbre, de se prononcer sur son état global de santé et sur les risques de rupture présentés par le sujet. Dans le cas d’un alignement ou d’un peuplement d’arbres, une étude sanitaire et mécanique d’ensemble est nécessaire.
Ce travail débute par une connaissance du patrimoine arboré sous la forme d’un inventaire permettant de localiser et d’identifier les sujets à soigner. Cette approche s’effectue d’abord par le lieu (nom de la rue ou de la route pour les alignements de voirie, nom du lieu-dit pour les parcs, jardins et bosquets). Elle est complétée par une numérotation de chaque arbre. Ensuite, les données à recueillir sont essentiellement basées sur l’observation des différentes parties de l’arbre : la couronne et le houppier (équilibre et état sanitaire des fleurs, fruits, feuilles, pousses, rameaux), les branches charpentières (insertions, affections), le tronc (dommages visibles, sondage de robustesse), le collet et les départs racinaires (blessures, pourritures, dégâts larvaires).
La notation du stade de développement de l’arbre est inscrite pour mémoire. Elle comporte 4 phases (éventuellement une 5e pour les sujets morts comptabilisés s’ils sont conservés pour des raisons écologiques, ce qui est possible dans un parc ou jardin, mais rare en alignement) : phase juvénile, phase adulte, phase de maturité, phase de sénescence. En général, l’état sanitaire de l’arbre n’est pas lié à son stade de développement, car un sujet peut être affecté dès la phase juvénile3 : par exemple, une infestation de cochenilles lécanines sur l’écorce ou une attaque de scolytes sur un arbre accusant une reprise difficile après la plantation. Toutefois, le desséchement de l’extrémité des branches, l’apparition des insectes xylophages et des pourritures du bois sont principalement liés à la phase de sénescence où l’arbre marque son arrêt de croissance. Lorsque les conditions du milieu sont défavorables (espèce inadaptée au biotope, carence nutritive, sécheresse, sol tassé…) au développement optimal de l’arbre, ces organismes attaquent plus tôt. Par exemple en phase de maturité, lorsque l’accroissement en diamètre s’est fortement réduit, des bois morts peuvent apparaître de façon naturelle par manque de luminosité ou à la suite d’attaques parasitaires. Avant de scruter de près les différents organes de l’arbre, il convient d’analyser son faciès à une distance éloignée.

On peut ainsi identifier sa morphologie et les points critiques :
- silhouette anormale (compressée, penchée, déséquilibrée),
- vigueur atténuée par rapport aux dimensions habituelles de l’essence dans une station similaire,
- allure chétive ; couronne trop remontée suite à un élagage excessif des branches inférieures ; descente de cime ; réitération (rejets verticaux sur les branches principales indiquant la sénescence de l’arbre) ; houppier peu développé, desséché, clairsemé, taché de couleur atypique (par exemple, la chlorose ferrique sur le pin entraîne un jaunissement, puis un brunissement des aiguilles).

Parmi les principaux indicateurs de l’état sanitaire d’un arbre figurent les suivants, notés selon un examen progressif de l’arbre allant du pied vers la cime :
- sol craquelé autour du pied pouvant indiquer une amplitude anormale des mouvements de l’arbre dans le vent,
- racines sectionnées, arrachées, mises à nue ou nécrosées,
- tronc blessé, fendu profondément ou sonnant creux ; écorce nécrosée, fissurée, anormalement exfoliée, perforée par des trous d’émergence d’insectes ou les coups de bec d’un pic à la recherche de larves sous-corticales ; suintement fongique et/ou bactérien ; écoulement de miellat et fumagine,
- infestation généralisée d’un ravageur ou d’une maladie ; présence de bois mort dans le houppier ; grosses plaies mal cicatrisées, parfois parasitées ; dessèchement ou pourriture des parties ligneuses,
- faible à très faible vigueur repérable par des accroissements annuels des ramifications réduits et/ou une décoloration du feuillage évoluant en chute prématurée ou défoliation ; cet indicateur est souvent consécutif aux précédents ; mais c’est le seul qui puisse mettre en évidence un dépérissement interne lié à une maladie vasculaire (graphiose de l’orme, chancre coloré du platane, verticilliose…) avant vérification par une coupe de branche (observation des cernes brunis) ou un carottage à la tarière-sonde du type tarière de Pressler ; l’utilisation d’un marteau sondeur permet également d’extraire une carotte de bois destinée à la visualisation et si besoin à l’analyse pathologique en laboratoire.

Sur la base de ces observations, on peut retenir 5 types d’intervention selon le niveau d’altération constaté et la dangerosité correspondante...

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Jérôme Jullien
expert en surveillance biologique du territoire
Conférence dans le cadre de la journée à thème d'Alençon 2010

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