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Recherche

Apprenez à jardiner dans le respect de votre environnement, un site de la SNHF
http://www.

Agapanthus 'Blue Heaven' (La plante du mois)

Jardine avec Bottine et ses amis. de 3 à 11 ans

Les moyens naturels de lutte antiparasitaire

En 1960, La SNHF déjà à la pointe de la diffusion des connaissances sur la protection des plantes ! Un bon moyen de lutte contre les idées reçues qui, par méconnaissance des sujets abordés, sont trop souvent évoquées. 

 

Notre revue Jardins de France a publié le texte d’une causerie donnée à la SNHF le Vendredi 29 avril 1960.

Les conférenciers ; Pierre GRISON, Universitaire et Daniel MARTOURET, Ingénieur Horticole, tous deux chercheurs à la station de zoologie INRA de Versailles ont fait  un panorama de l’évolution de la recherche et des applications pratiques, en France et dans le monde sur la protection des plantes, depuis la seconde moitié du 19ème siècle.

De manière simpliste et erronée, on  a tendance à présenter en opposition  le 20ème siècle comme étant l’ère du « tout chimique » et le début de notre siècle paré des vertus écologiques centrées sur l’Homme et le respect de son environnement.

Vous découvrirez, à la lecture de cet article que les premières recherches en matière de lutte biologique remontent aux années 1880 et que c’est PASTEUR qui a eu le premier l’idée d’utiliser des micro-organismes pathogènes contre les insectes.

Dès les années 1950, tous les dangers pour l’Homme et les équilibres biologiques de l’emploi massif des antiparasitaires chimiques sont reconnus et le risque de résistances des insectes aux produits chimiques est énoncé.

Dés 1960 toutes les grandes règles d’usage de ce que l’on appelle de nos jours la protection biologique intégrée sont posées :

            -Le respect des bonnes pratiques, jadis appelées « règles culturales »

            - Les effets du climat

            - le synchronisme des cycles proies/ prédateurs

            - les hôtes intermédiaires

            - la flore spontanée refuge

            - le risque des hyper parasites

La conclusion de cette conférence est d’une étonnante fraîcheur !

            « La conception classique et fort généralisée autrefois (avant 1960!) d’une opposition entre l’emploi de facteurs biologiques et celui de la lutte chimique est maintenant abandonné pour faire place à des formules plus nuancées »

            «  Elles peuvent (les méthodes) apporter des solutions, parfois efficaces, mais toujours harmonieuses et satisfaisantes à la fois pour la connaissance biologique des savants et pour l’intérêt économique des collectivités agricoles ».

 Eh oui ; ce que l’on ne connaissait pas encore sous le concept de développement durable, à l’époque, avait déjà un pilier économique !

Michel Javoy

 

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