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La mouche mineuse du poireau

Mouche mineuse du poireau (M Javoy)De nombreux jardiniers, depuis l’année 2005, signalent des dégâts inhabituels dans les cultures de poireaux : mortalité importante de jeunes plantes, feuilles déformées, galeries dans les feuilles…
Jusqu’alors, les dégâts d’insectes sur poireau, plus ou moins importants selon les années, étaient le fait de ravageurs bien connus : la teigne du poireau, Acrolepiopsis assectella, et la mouche de l’oignon, Delia antiqua. Il s'agit cette fois un nouveau ravageur important des cultures, la mouche mineuse des plantes du genre Allium (poireau, ail, oignon, ciboulette…), Phytomyza gymnostoma Loew.

Description des dégâts observés
À ce jour, le poireau semble constituer la cible principale de l’insecte. Lors des tous premiers stades de développement, après plantation, les jeunes plantes peuvent disparaître en plus ou moins grand nombre. À mi-développement de la plante, on observe un ramollissement et un affaissement de celle-ci. Ce symptôme général s’accompagne le plus souvent de feuilles déformées, de fûts, dans leur partie apparente, boursouflés, d’aspect fendu et éclaté. Des pourritures secondaires peuvent ensuite envahir la plante et contribuer à sa destruction. Une observation plus approfondie des plantes atteintes est nécessaire pour aboutir à la reconnaissance du ravageur en cause. Les feuilles externes qui forment le fût du poireau sont parcourues par des galeries verticales descendantes rectilignes, sèches et légèrement colorées de brun. À l’extrémité de chacune des galeries, on observe des logettes contenant une pupe marron de 3,5 mm de long, orientée verticalement. Cette pupe, qui demeure adhérente au végétal jusqu’à l’émergence de l’adulte, ne peut pas être confondue avec la pupe de la mouche de l’oignon, plus grosse, avec ses 6 à 7 mm de longueur et qui, systématiquement en fin de cycle, se détache du végétal pour se laisser tomber sur le sol.

Origine et répartition géographique
La mouche Phytomyza gymnostoma, précédemment classée Napomyza gymnostoma, a été décrite pour la première fois en Pologne, près de Poznan, par un spécialiste des diptères, F. Hermann Loew, en 1858. De 1858 jusqu’à 1979, cette mineuse n’avait jamais été signalée comme ravageur des plantes cultivées. Sans que l’on sache pourquoi, elle est devenue ravageur significatif des poireaux et des oignons dans différents pays européens, semblet- il à partir de l’Europe de l’Est.
La mouche mineuse est signalée dans un nombre croissant de pays avec une migration d’est en ouest :
- 1986 : Hongrie.
- 1990 : Croatie, Slovaquie.
- 1992 : Serbie Monténégro.
- 1994 : Slovénie, Autriche, Allemagne.
- 1997 : Pologne.
- 1999 : Italie.
- Décembre 2003 : France (Alsace), Espagne, Suisse, Turquie, Royaume-Uni.

Importance des dégâts, évolution probable
Il faut s’attendre à voir augmenter significativement la présence de cette mouche en France. Elle doit être considérée comme un ravageur émergeant, économiquement important. Contrairement à d’autres insectes phytophages récemment apparus dans notre pays, le profil de son origine et de son évolution ne semble pas être en lien avec la tendance observée du réchauffement climatique. Il ne faut pas non plus compter sur des séquences d’hiver plus froid pour assurer sa destruction.

Les méthodes de lutte
Une stratégie d’observations et des études sont nécessaires pour mieux connaître le cycle de l’insecte, son comportement et la dynamique des populations, dans le but d’élaborer des méthodes de lutte cohérentes. Dans un premier temps, la mise en place de techniques de piégeage permettra de mieux connaître les périodes de vol des adultes.
• La protection chimique : actuellement ce ravageur n’est pas pris en compte par la législation européenne et, de ce fait, aucun produit phytosanitaire ne peut être préconisé.
• Les ennemis naturels de la mineuse,
parasitoïdes ou prédateurs : en règle générale, les larves de mouches mineuses sont souvent des hôtes de nombreux insectes parasitoïdes, notamment des hyménoptères. Dans le cas de la mouche mineuse du poireau, un parasitisme significatif des larves par l’hyménoptère Halticoptera circulus a été observé en 1997. Cela laisse augurer d’une bonne perspective de lutte biologique, dans un premier temps à partir du simple respect des auxiliaires naturels.
• La destruction des déchets végétaux contaminés : l’élimination d’un maximum de végétaux (feuilles et fûts) atteints semble une précaution nécessaire mais assez difficile à appliquer.
• La protection mécanique des cultures : en attente du résultat des études en cours qui permettront de mieux déterminer les périodes prédictives de vol des adultes ; il semble intéressant, au jardin potager, d’assurer une couverture des
jeunes plantations avec un voile anti-insectes dont la taille maximale des mailles ne doit pas excéder 0,8 mm afin de bloquer les adultes et ainsi empêcher les pontes. Les plantes seront alors protégées au stade jeune, le plus sensible, contre l’ensemble des ravageurs du poireau incluant la teigne et la mouche de l’oignon.
• Un suivi rigoureux des cultures : par nos observations, nous pouvons contribuer à enrichir les connaissances générales et ainsi faire évoluer les méthodes de lutte au bénéfice de tous. La voie la plus intéressante de la protection biologique nécessite le recoupement d’un maximum d’informations. Les jardiniers ayant eu des dégâts de mouches mineuses du poireau dans leur potager devront être particulièrement vigilants. Nous accueillerons très favorablement toutes les observations sur notre site Internet.

Michel Javoy
Président de la Société d'Horticulture d'Orléans et du Loiret
Jardins de France Décembre 2009

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