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La mineuse du marronnier

Dégâts de la mineuse sur marronnierLa mineuse du marronnier, Cameraria ohridella, est un nouveau ravageur du marronnier d’Inde (= marronnier blanc), Aesculus hippocastanum, espèce originaire des Balkans et introduite au XVIe siècle en Europe à des fins ornementales. Après sa découverte au début des années 1980 près du lac Ohrid en Macédoine, elle est ensuite apparue en Autriche en 1989, puis a envahi rapidement toute l’Europe à une vitesse d’environ 60 km par an. En France, elle a été observée pour la première fois en Alsace en 2000 et elle était présente dans tous les départements dès 2006 (Augustin et al., 2009).

L’origine de la mineuse du marronnier est pendant longtemps restée une énigme, mais la faible variabilité génétique des populations de C. ohridella des zones envahies en Europe, comparée aux populations des forêts naturelles de marronniers dans les Balkans, indique une origine balkanique (Valade et al., 2009). Les chenilles de ce papillon sont mineuses de feuilles, c’est à-dire que, pour se nourrir, elles creusent entre les deux épidermes de la feuille de petites galeries ou « mines ». Les mines se présentent sous forme de taches de couleur brun roux à la surface des feuilles. Elles peuvent fusionner et même recouvrir totalement cette surface lors de fortes infestations, provoquant le brunissement et la chute du feuillage dès le début de l’été. C’est le premier ravageur important des marronniers en Europe et ses dégâts spectaculaires sur marronnier d’Inde, une des espèces le plus plantées dans les villes européennes, ont fait naître l’inquiétude du public et des responsables des espaces verts.

Le cycle biologique et les ennemis naturels

En France, C. ohridella présente généralement trois générations par an. Au printemps, les adultes provenant des feuilles restées au sol en hiver sont facilement observables sur les troncs, où ils se retrouvent pour l’accouplement. Les femelles attirent les mâles en émettant une phéromone, et peu de temps après la fécondation, elles pondent plusieurs dizaines d’oeufs minuscules à la surface supérieure des feuilles, le long des nervures. Les jeunes chenilles s’enfoncent dès l’éclosion à l’intérieur de la feuille. Elles minent une galerie de 1 à 2 mm de long. Les chenilles de 2e et 3e stades élargissent la mine circulairement. Les chenilles âgées (4e stade et parfois présence d’un 5e stade) allongent les mines parallèlement aux nervures de la feuille. Les premiers stades larvaires ont une morphologie adaptée à leur mode de vie de mineuse : les chenilles sont aplaties et apodes, elles possèdent des segments abdominaux mamelonnés et une tête triangulaire, avec des mandibules orientées vers l’avant. Les deux derniers stades larvaires ont une forme plus cylindrique et tissent des fils de soie pour constituer à l’intérieur de la mine un petit cocon blanc où la chenille va se chrysalider. À la fin du développement, la chrysalide se transforme en papillon. L’insecte passe l’hiver à l’état de chrysalide dans les feuilles tombées au sol et émerge au printemps suivant.

Le complexe de prédateurs de C. ohridella comprend des oiseaux et des insectes, cependant, seules les mésanges (Parus caerulea, P. major et P. palustris) et la sauterelle (Meconema meridionalis) ont un impact négatif mesurable sur les populations de C. ohridella (Grabenweger et al., 2005). Une trentaine d’espèces de parasitoïdes ont été identifiées. Ce sont tous des hyménoptères généralistes parasites d’autres espèces de mineuses qui pondent de préférence sur les larves âgées et les chrysalides. Leur impact sur les populations de C. ohridella est faible (Grabenweger, 2004). Le succès de l’invasion de C. ohridella s’explique principalement par son multivoltinisme (2 à 4 générations par an), l’absence de compétition interspécifique avec d’autres insectes défoliateurs, la faible pression de sélection exercée par les ennemis naturels et une dispersion anthropique à grande distance.

Larve de CAMERARIA OHRIDELLACAMERARIA OHRIDELLA

Lire la suite...

Olivier Denux et Sylvie Augustin
Inra Orléans, Unité de Recherche de Zoologie Forestière
Conférence dans le cadre des journées à thème sur l'arbre. Bourges 2011

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