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Apprenez à jardiner dans le respect de votre environnement, un site de la SNHF

Agapanthus 'Blue Heaven' (La plante du mois)

Jardine avec Bottine et ses amis. de 3 à 11 ans

Gérer durablement son patrimoine arboré

Angers (Pépinières Minier)La gestion durable des arbres dans la ville ou une commune n’a pas le même sens qu’à l’extérieur de la cité. L’habitat ou les conditions de vie y sont plus difficiles :
• Pollution de l’air
• Compacité des sols
• Agression de toutes sortes :
- parasites, (insectes, champignons, mais aussi oiseaux),
- taille en tout genre : de mise au gabarit (routier et réseaux), de complaisance, sanitaire ou de sécurité,
- accidents routiers,
- travaux en sous-sol,
- blessures gratuites.
Dans cet espace, l’arbre, en plus du symbole de fraternité, de liberté, a la capacité de structurer la ville. Il n’y a pas que les parcs et jardins pour laisser les arbres évoluer : imaginez les grandes artères ou pénétrantes routières sans la moindre présence végétale !
En plus de cet effet structurant, l’arbre est un fixateur de carbone et là, nous nous rapprochons des nouvelles notions de développement durable. L’arbre a pour effet de diminuer l’impact carbone ou polluant de l’activité urbaine. À cela s’ajoute son influence climatique, non pas à l’échelle planétaire, mais plus simplement au niveau de quartiers. En effet, de récentes études ont démontré qu’il existait des écarts de température entre des quartiers urbanisés avec le même type d’habitat mais avec ou sans arbres ; ces derniers agissent contre la réverbération. Cet écart peut être de 2 °C en moyenne dans les secteurs plantés. Or, 2 petits degrés, cela ne paraît pas grand chose mais ferait baisser de 20 % la mortalité humaine en période caniculaire !
Le défi pour les collectivités et leurs décideurs est donc de pouvoir végétaliser leur territoire en connaissance de tous ces facteurs. L’apparition de la graphiose de l’orme a transformé le paysage dans le nord de la France mais aussi dans notre bocage. À partir de ce phénomène, les collectivités ont perçu le danger lorsqu’un genre d’arbre domine dans le paysage. Ainsi, à partir des années 1975-1980, bon nombre d’entre elles ont entrepris de faire un inventaire du patrimoine arboré. Sur le territoire d’Alençon, c’est à partir des années 1990 que le service des espaces verts a établi sa carte des espèces. Après plus d’un an et demi de recensement entre les parcs, jardins, aménagements de zones urbanisées, et les rues et avenues, le résultat est le suivant :
- Sur 12 000 sujets, 10 000 sont des feuillus, les 2 000 autres étant des conifères.
- Sur les feuillus, 3 genres se détachent : Acer (érables), Tilia (tilleuls) et Populus (peupliers).
Le recensement a donc orienté le choix des nouvelles plantations afin de diversifier la population végétale et éviter le risque de voir disparaître 20 % des arbres en cas d’une attaque parasitaire. Dans un même temps, la politique de la collectivité a été d’établir un plan de plantation pluriannuel sur les avenues et rues de la ville, plan mis en place avec l’aide d’un cabinet d’urbanisme. Nous nous approchions du sommet de Rio (3-14 juin 1992), mais déjà la notion de durable s’introduisait dans la ville !

Le projet de végétaliser les voies a obligé le service espaces verts à établir des conventions avec les différents concessionnaires (EDF, GDF, France Télécom, Lyonnaise des Eaux...). Des critères sont définis : volume des fosses, mélanges terreux, protection des réseaux, distances minimales, déclarations de travaux à proximité des arbres, et un barème pour dégradations d’arbres est adopté par le conseil municipal.

Lire la suite...

Jean-Michel Pichard - service des espaces verts d’Alençon
Conférence lors de la journée à thème sur l'arbre Alençon 2010

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acheter les actes du colloque Quand les plantes se parlent