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Apprenez à jardiner dans le respect de votre environnement, un site de la SNHF

Agapanthus 'Blue Heaven' (La plante du mois)

Jardine avec Bottine et ses amis. de 3 à 11 ans

Ce qui rend l'eau disponible pour les plantes

Le sol influence la disponibilité en eau pour les plantesToute approche raisonnée de l'arrosage repose sur la maîtrise de la disponibilité de l'eau dans l'environnement racinaire. Ce paramètre complexe intègre deux grandes notions, l'une qualitative qui définit la possibilité énergétique de transférer de l'eau du sol (substrat) vers la plante, l'autre surtout quantitative est liée aux quantités d'eau potentiellement transférables vers la plante.

La biodisponibilité en eau définit la capacité biophysique de la plante à prélever de l'eau dans le milieu racinaire, c'est en gros le travail qui doit être fourni pour le transfert. Moins il y a d'eau dans un milieu, plus elle sera liée au solide et plus il faudra fournir de travail pour le transfert. Plus il y aura de solutés (sels) dans l'eau plus il faudra fournir de travail pour valoriser cette eau dans la plante. Totalement additifs, ces deux aspects doivent être conduits de front dans les milieux où la salinité n'est plus négligeable. Même si la contrainte saline peut exister en région méditerranéenne ou littorale, c'est surtout à la relation de l'eau au solide (sol ou substrat) que la suite de cet exposé sera consacrée.
La biodisponibilité de l'eau dans le sol au voisinage des racines varie sur plusieurs échelles de temps, journalière, entre deux périodes d'irrigation, saisonnière. Cette disponibilité aura des conséquences directes sur la plante, son absorption, sa transpiration et bien entendu sa croissance. De la situation de confort à une situation de rationnement, la relation biodisponibilité moyenne en eau - croissance de la plante est continûment décroissante. Il existe cependant un seuil minimal de biodisponibilité à partir duquel la plante ne peut plus prélever d'eau et qui entraîne son flétrissement puis sa mort.
L'objectif de la culture, alimentaire, ornementale, voire uniquement décorative permettra de définir le niveau de rationnement voire de stress hydrique supportable. Cette technique suppose un raisonnement assez précis ou de pouvoir accéder à la variable de biodisponibilité de l'eau dans le milieu racinaire avec des systèmes de mesure tensiométriques ou électriques indirects. Ils sont déjà largement utilisés dans les SEV des grandes villes.

Pour les jardiniers avertis ou soucieux de limiter leur consommation en eau, l'approche volumique quantitative reste la plus abordable. Elle est cependant soumise à quelques notions de base et surtout à l'appréciation de la relation teneur en eau-biodisponibilité qui est propre à chaque milieu.


Sylvain Charpentier
Professeur de science su sol
INH Angers

Journée à thème "Mieux arroser" Janvier 2008

acheter les actes du colloque Quand les plantes se parlent