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Apprenez à jardiner dans le respect de votre environnement, un site de la SNHF

Agapanthus 'Blue Heaven' (La plante du mois)

Jardine avec Bottine et ses amis. de 3 à 11 ans

Amélioration génétique et création de diversité

Graminées pour potéesToutes les espèces, quelque soit le règne auquel elles appartiennent, évoluent de façon permanente. L’agriculture qui remonte à plus de 10 000 ans constitue un facteur important de l’évolution des espèces végétales cultivées. Elle a succédé très progressivement à la cueillette.

Chez les espèces horticoles, principalement chez les espèces ornementales, l’homme a largement utilisé la variabilité naturelle, collectée dans des zones de diversification ou dans des jardins d’acclimatation. Pour les espèces potagères et fruitières, en revanche, la sélection dirigée a très tôt pris une place importante dans la création de variabilité.

Le processus de diversification est un préalable à l'amélioration : la diversité est venue et vient encore de l'introduction et de l’acclimatation, c’est une étape préalable à l'amélioration. Le schéma assez classique est : collecte dans le lieu de diversification, puis mise en culture pour favoriser des approvisionnements réguliers et enfin sélection et éventuellement amélioration quand quelques défauts apparaissent.

L’amélioration des plantes, qui suit la phase de diversification, sur un nombre restreint d’espèces peut être globalement définie comme l’ensemble des activités tendant à "l’ajustement génétique" des plantes au service de l’homme et comme la réalisation de multiples adaptations aux milieux physique, biologique et économique.

Les espèces cultivées ont continué à évoluer au cours des millénaires qui ont suivi les débuts de la domestication. Contrairement à ce qui a pu se passer pour les animaux domestiques, l’Homme est longtemps resté dans l’ignorance des processus de reproduction des plantes. L’idée de créer de nouvelles espèces par hybridation ne viendra qu'au XVIIIème siècle.

Les véritables progrès en sélection vont commencer au XIXème siècle grâce à des précurseurs comme P. Shireff en Ecosse et L. et H. de Vilmorin en France. Ces précurseurs ont élaboré des méthodes de sélection qui sont toujours en pratique. Cependant, ils ignoraient les lois de l’hérédité qui ne seront intégrées à la sélection qu’au début du XXème siècle après la “redécouverte” des travaux publiés par G. Mendel en 1865.

Au cours du XXème siècle, ces méthodes renforcées par la connaissance des lois de la génétique vont déboucher sur la création de très nombreuses variétés améliorées. Dans le même temps, les progrès des connaissances en physiologie végétale, biologie de la reproduction, biologie moléculaire, ont apporté de nouveaux outils aux sélectionneurs, qui les ont alors plus largement utilisés pour augmenter la variabilité, raccourcir le délai de la sélection et rendre celle-ci plus précise et efficace.

Afin de favoriser la création variétale et le développement de nouvelles variétés, à l'initiative de chercheurs et de professionnels français, une réflexion sur un système de protection juridique, applicable au matériel biologique, fut lancée. Ce système a été mis en place par la Convention pour la Protection des Obtentions Végétales signée le 2 décembre 1961 à Paris, par quelques états regroupés au sein de l'Union pour la Protection des Obtentions Végétales (UPOV). Aujourd’hui, 65 pays sont membres de l’UPOV y compris l’Union Européenne.


Yvette Dattée 
Académie d’agriculture Paris
Alain Cadic
INRA Angers
Catherine Ducatillion
INRA Antibes

Colloque scientifique de la SNHF. Mai 2008

acheter les actes du colloque Quand les plantes se parlent