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Trognes ou plessage, des pratiques ancestrales

Malmo Suède (C.Secq)Les pratiques paysannes de l’étêtage, de l’émondage et du plessage des arbres sont probablement contemporaines des débuts de l’agriculture. Des restes de trognes trouvés dans le lit de la Trent en Angleterre ont été datés de 3 400 ans et en Belgique, des émondes de 1 800 ans ont été exhumées de la Meuse. Quant au plessage, César l’évoque dans le livre II de la Guerre des Gaules en 52 avant J.C. à propos de la bataille de la Sambre : «ils taillaient et courbaient de jeunes arbres ; ceux-ci poussaient en largeur de nombreuses branches ; des ronces et des buissons épineux croissaient dans les intervalles : si bien que ces haies, semblables à des murs, leurs offraient une protection que le regard même ne pouvait violer. Notre armée était embarrassée dans sa marche par ces obstacles».
L’augmentation de la population européenne associée au développement de l’agriculture s’est faite aux dépens de la forêt. Pâturée et défrichée, la forêt naturelle a, au cours et selon les siècles, régressé de manière considérable. Mais avant une époque récente, les hommes ne pouvaient se passer des arbres pourvoyeurs d’énergie, de bois d’oeuvre, de fourrage… Cette situation a conduit, en Europe et bien au-delà, à l’invention d’une autre forêt, « la forêt aérienne ou le taillis suspendu », hors d’atteinte de la dent herbivore, modèle qui sera décliné sous une infinité de formes et de situations que l’on commence aujourd’hui à redécouvrir : forêts de têtards du Pays basque, d’Alsace ou d’Angleterre, trognes ou émondes alignées dans les haies des bocages, le long des chemins creux ou des routes et jusqu’au coeur des villes, têtards se reflétant dans les eaux des canaux du Marais poitevin ou des Pays-Bas ou dans le miroir des mares des champs ou des villages, c’est par dizaines de millions qu’on a créé des trognes. Mais il faut aussi clore les parcelles, qu’elles soient cultivées, pâturées ou boisées pour protéger les cultures ou la forêt de la divagation des herbivores ou les contenir dans des enclos durables. En l’absence de pierres, l’arbre se prête à cette fonction avec efficacité : les imposantes plesses de chêne, de charme, de frêne, de hêtre… du Perche, de Sologne, d’Anjou ou du Morvan témoignent de cette conduite horizontale de l’arbre loin de l’image habituelle du sujet au tronc bien droit surmonté d’un houppier régulier.

La fonction n’est jamais unique (l’arbre-clôture est aussi brouté et peut donner du bois…), et elle peut évoluer dans le temps (les têtards bas du Marais poitevin ont été rehaussés quand on a mis des bovins dans la parcelle) ; les riverains se partagent le bois de la trogne qui sert aussi de borne ; le tronc, détenu par le propriétaire, est un jour transformé en bois d’oeuvre qui est, soit utilisé brut dans l’habitat ou en guise de brise-lame (voir les tortillards de la plage de Saint-Malo), soit débité pour la charpente qui peut être celle d’un bateau. Taillées le plus souvent tous les neuf ans (durée d’un bail), les trognes et les émondes fournissaient avant tout du bois de fagot et du petit bois (charbonnette). Le fagot, sorte de baril de pétrole renouvelable avant l’heure, servait aux usages domestiques : cheminées, fours, chaudrons, et artisanaux : fours à pain, à briques, à tuiles, à poterie, à chaux, à chanvre, qui en engloutissaient des centaines de millions tous les ans. Avant la diffusion du charbon de terre, notamment par le chemin de fer, c’est le charbon de bois qui alimentait les forges et la sidérurgie. Les forêts de têtards de chêne et de hêtre du Pays basque en Espagne et en France fournissaient du charbon de bois acheminé à dos d’âne sur les sites industriels de la côte. Le petit bois était fagoté, tandis que cette taille régulière (12 ans) stimulait la mise à fruits des chênes et des hêtres pour les porcs. Certains de ces arbres étaient formés pour en tirer des pièces de marine. La récolte de la fougère et le pâturage complétaient cette valorisation optimale de l’espace.

À ces usages, il convient surtout de ne pas oublier la fonction fourragère des trognes qu’on a pu aussi appeler « prairies aériennes », tant leur importance a été grande dans les Pays nordiques et en montagne (mais pas seulement). L’orme et le frêne étaient les essences le plus recherchées pour cette alimentation qui pouvait être donnée directement aux animaux dans la parcelle quand l’herbe faisait défaut, ou bien en hiver aux animaux à l’étable, sous forme de rameaux feuillés prélevés sur les arbres en fin d’été et réunis en fagots. L’importation du ver à soie, suivie de celle du mûrier blanc, verra la création de millions de têtards pour nourrir la vorace chenille.

Ces usages innombrables de « l’arbre paysan » ont été appliqués à presque toutes les essences champêtres (les houx on été étrognés pour le fourrage en Angleterre et les bouleaux pour faire des balais en Mayenne ou en Bretagne). Contrairement aux idées reçues, ces tailles répétées et régulières, loin d’abréger la durée de vie de l’arbre, en prolongent souvent l’existence. Stimulées par la taille, moins exposées aux intempéries, beaucoup de trognes sont au nombre des arbres les plus remarquables et âgés d’Europe. De plus, la formation plus rapide de cavités, la pérennité du tronc lors de la taille, leur nombre et la multiplicité des formes et des situations font de ces arbres un atout considérable pour la biodiversité (insectes, oiseaux, mammifères…).

Aujourd’hui, bien que certains agriculteurs continuent à entretenir ces arbres pour faire du bois bûche (avec des intervalles de taille bien plus espacés qu’autrefois), l’abandon de la taille, la destruction et le non renouvellement des trognes compromettent gravement, partout en Europe, l’avenir d’un patrimoine exceptionnel (économique, biologique, paysager, culturel…) trop longtemps oublié ou méprisé. Reprendre la taille de vieilles trognes pour éviter qu’elles ne se brisent est problématique : un retour aux niveaux de coupe initiaux condamne généralement l’arbre et s’avère dangereux (chêne, hêtre…), des techniques de réduction de houppier réalisées par des élagueurs en une ou plusieurs étapes sont possibles mais onéreuses et sans garantie de succès à 100 %. De nouvelles pratiques avec les filières bois énergie et bois fertile (B.R.F., paillage…), ainsi que l’émergence de l’agroforesterie peuvent redonner une place à ces arbres, en revenant à des cycles de coupe plus en phase avec leur biologie.
De plus, une gestion en têtard bien conduite est économe en temps et en main d’oeuvre, et apporte une production de rameaux homogène beaucoup plus aisée à valoriser. Beaucoup de situations, y compris en zone urbaine, se prêtent à cette gestion de l’arbre que notre société dispendieuse et déconnectée des savoirs ancestraux avait un peu trop rapidement oubliée. Il y a beaucoup à apprendre des trognes, émondes et plessages paysans : écoles du paysage, gestionnaires des
espaces publics, architectes, paysagistes… commencent à s’y intéresser. Leur présence depuis des milliers d’années est un modèle de développement durable dont notre société ferait bien de s’inspirer.

Dominique Mansion
artiste, illustrateur naturaliste, expert en « trognes »
Conférence dans le cadre des journées à thème sur l'arbre, Alençon 2010

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